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School of Environment and Life Sciences

Dr Chloe James

Senior Lecturer in Medical Microbiology


Born in Liverpool, 1976, I first became interested in microbiology as a young teenager living next door to a researcher at the School of Tropical Medicine in Liverpool. I was fascinated by his working life, and thus completed a 4 year honours degree in Medical Microbiology at the University of Edinburgh (1994-1998). This sparked my real passion for bacterial diseases and I returned to The University of Liverpool for my PhD studies working on bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) of pathogenic E. coli (1998-2003).

I then worked as a postdoctoral researcher for 10 years at several institutions: The University of Florida, USA (2003-2006): investigating oral bacteria and their role in the development of periodontitis. Aix-Marseille Université, France (2006-2008): investigating how bacterial porin channels control the transport of many antibiotics across the outer-membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The University of Liverpool (2009-2012): investigating bacteriophages of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. I was appointed as a lecturer in medical microbiology at the University of Salford in 2012 and have been working primarily within the research field of bacterial pathogens and bacterial viruses.

I welcome applications from prospective PhD students with a background in molecular microbiology, and a keen interest in bacterial pathogens; polymicrobial biofilms; bacterial evolution; antimicrobial resistance; global health or bacteriophage biology.


I co-ordinate and teach on a wide range of microbiology-based modules at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. I lead the Infection and Immunity module on the Biomedical Science MSc Programme; and the Microbial Communities and Interactions module, for 2nd years on the HBI&D and Biology undergraduate Programmes.

I also contribute microbiology teaching on 7 additional modules at undergraduate level (molecules to microbes; study skills; biomedical skills; biomedical science practice; medical and public health microbiology; human microbiology and infection control; professional skills and final year research project). I host a wide range of project students in the lab, including Erasmus students; Undergraduates and Postgraduates on the Biomedical  Science programmes; Masters by research students and PhD students.

Research Interests

My chief research interests lie in bacterial pathogenicity, development and spread of antibiotic resistance and how microbial evolution is driven by interaction with microbial communities and their environments. I am particularly interested in bacteria and bacteriophages in multi-species biofilms.

Key research questions:

1)    How are microbial communities affected by changing environmental conditions and antibiotics and how do they influence the survival of important bacterial pathogens on farms? (PhD project)

2)    What are the dynamics of microbial communities that infect wounds; how do they change over time and how do they influence healing? (PhD project)

3)    What are the major contributing factors that lead to bacterial sepsis in under-resourced clinical settings and how can they be controlled? (PhD project)

4)    How is antimicrobial resistance development and spread influenced by poor antibiotic stewardship in sub-Saharan Africa? (PhD project)

5)    How do bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) influence the dynamics of bacterial communities? (project in development)

6)    What is the potential of natural and synthetic compounds and nanoparticles as novel antimicrobial agents?

Qualifications and Memberships

The Microbiology Society and The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Chair of the Salford University Committee for Genetically Modified Organisms.

Member of working groups for Athena Swan; International relations; Employer liaison committee.


Manchester Science Festival (2015-16): Bioselfies

Pint of Science 2017: (All the worlds a phage);


Refereed Full Papers:

yJames, C. E., yDavies, E. V., Brockhurst, M. A., and Winstanley, C. (2017) Evolutionary diversification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an artificial sputum model. BMC Microbiology 17 DOI: 10.1186/s12866-016-0916-z. (Impact factor 3.1)

Bronowski, C., Mustafa, K., Goodhead, I., James C. E., Nelson, C., Lucaci, A., Wigley, P., Humphrey, T. J., Williams, N. J., Winstanley, C (2017) Campylobacter jejuni transcriptome changes during loss of culturability in water. bioRxiv 150383; doi:

Antwis, R.E., Griffiths, S.M., Harrison, X. A., Aranega-Bou, P., Arce, A., Bettridge, A. S., Brailsford, F. L., De Menezes, A., Devaynes, A., Forbes, K. M., Fry, E. L., Goodhead, I., Haskell, E., Heys, C. E., James, C. E., Johnston, S. R., Lewis, G. R., Lewis, Z., Macey, M. C., McCarthy, A. J., McDonald, J. E., Mejia-Florez, N. L., O’Brien, D., Orland, C., Pautasso, M., Reid, W. D. K., Robinson, H. A., Wilson, K., Sutherland, W. J (2017) Fifty important research questions in microbial ecology. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 93 (5): fix044. doi: 10.1093/femsec/fix044 (Cited, 1 times, Impact Factor 3.7)

yJames, C. E, yDavies, E., Williams, D., O’Brien, S., Fothergill, J., Haldenby, S., Paterson, S., Winstanley, C, and Brockhurst, M (2016) Temperate phages both mediate and drive adaptive evolution in pathogen biofilms. PNAS 113 8266-71 (Cited, 12 times, Impact Factor 9.4)

Davies, EV, James, C E, Kukavica-Ibrulj, I, Levesque, RC, Brockhurst, MA and Winstanley, C (2016), Temperate phages enhance pathogen fitness in chronic lung infection, ISME Journal 10 2553-55. (Cited, 7 times, Impact Factor 9.3)

Davies, E. V., Winstanley, C., Fothergill, J. L., and James, C. E.  (2016) The role of temperate bacteriophages in bacterial infection. FEMS Microbiology Letters doi10.1093/femsle/fnw015 (Cited 7 times Impact factor 2.046)

Burns, N., James, C. E., Harrison, E. (2015) Polylysogeny magnifies competitiveness of a bacterial pathogen in vivo. Evolutionary Applications DOI: 10.1111/eva.12243 (Cited 9 times Impact factor 4.569)

James, C. E. Davies, E. V., Fothergill, J. L., Walshaw, M. J., Beale, C. M., Brockhurst, M. A., and Winstanley, C. (2015) Lytic activity by temperate phages of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in long-term cystic fibrosis chronic lung infections. The ISME Journal. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.223 (Cited 21 times Impact factor 9.267)

Bronowski, C., James, C. E., and Winstanley, C. (2014) Role of environmental survival in transmission of Campylobacter jejuni. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (356) 8-19. (Cited 43 times Impact factor 2.046)

James, C. E. (2013) Recent advances in studies of polymicrobial interactions in oral biofilms. Current Oral Health Reports (1) 59-69 (Cited 1 times)

James C. E., Fothergill J.L., Kalwij H., Hall, A., Cottell, J., Brockhurst, M A and Winstanley C (2012) Differential infection properties of three inducible prophages from an epidemic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. BMC Microbiology (12) 216-28  (Cited 24 times Impact factor 3.1)

Kirchner S., Fothergill, J. L., Wright E. A., James C E., Mowat E., and Winstanley C. (2012) Use of artificial sputum medium to test antibiotic efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in conditions more relevant to the cystic fibrosis lung. The Journal of Visualised Experiments 64:e3857. (Cited 43 times)

Fothergill J. L., Winstanley C and James C. E. (2012) Novel therapeutic strategies to counter Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Expert Reviews of Anti Infective Therapy. (10) 219–235. (Cited 42 times Impact factor 3.28)

Fothergill J.L., Mowat E., Walshaw M. J., Ledson M. J., James C. E., and Winstanley C. (2011) The effect of antibiotic treatment on bacteriophage production by a cystic fibrosis epidemic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. (55) 426-8 (Cited 29 times Impact factor 4.8)

Hartkoorn R. C., Kwan W-S., Shallcross V., Chaikan A., Liptrott N., Egan D., Sora J. E. S., James C. E., Gibbons S., Bray P. G., Back D. J., Khoo S. H., and Owen A. (2010) HIV protease inhibitors are substrates for OATP1A2, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and lopinavir plasma concentrations are influenced by SLCO1B1 polymorphisms. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics. (20) 112-20 (Cited 149 times; Impact Factor 3.6)

James C. E., Mahendran K. R., Molitor A., Bolla J-M., Bessonov A. N., Winterhalter M, and Pagès J-M (2009) How b-Lactam Antibiotics Enter Bacteria: A Dialogue with the Porins. PLoS ONE 4 (5). e5453. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005453 (Cited 67 times; Impact Factor 3.5)

Pagès J-M., James C. E., and Winterhalter M (2008) The porin and the permeating antibiotic: a selective diffusion barrier in Gram-negative bacteria. Nat Rev Microbiol. (12) 893-903 (review) (Cited 413 times; Impact Factor 17.64)

Davin-Regli A., Bolla J-M., James C. E., Lavigne J-P., Chevalier J., Garnotel E., Molitor A., and Pagès J-M (2008) Membrane permeability and regulation of drug "influx and efflux" in enterobacterial pathogens. Curr Drug Targets (9) 750-9 (review). (Cited 144 times; Impact Factor 3.93)

Smith, D. L., James, C. E., Sergeant. M, J., Yaxian, Y., Saunders, J. R., McCarthy, A. J., and Allison, H. E (2007) Short-tailed Stx Phages Exploit the Conserved YaeT Protein to Disseminate Shiga Toxin Genes Amongst Enterobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 189 7223-33 (Cited 47 times; Impact Factor 3.94)

yJames, C. E., yDupont, M., Chevalier, J., and Pages, J-M (2007) An Early Response to Environmental Stress Involves Regulation of OmpX and OmpF, Two Enterobacterial Outer Membrane Pore Forming Proteins. Antimicrob. Agents Chermother. 51 (9) 3190-8 (Cited 46 times; Impact Factor 4.8)

Mao, S., Park, Y., Hasegawa, Y., Tribble, G, D. Tribble., James, C. E., Hanfield, M., Stavropoulos, M . F., Yilmaz, O., and Lamont, R. J (2007) Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathways of Gingival Epithelial Cells Modulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Cell Microbiol. 9 (8) 1997-2007 (Cited 112 times; Impact Factor 5.7)

Park, Y., James, C. E., Yoshimura, F., and Lamont, R. J (2006). Expression of the Short Fimbriae of Porphyromonas gingivalis is Regulated in Oral Bacterial Consortia. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 262 (1) 65-71. (Cited 17 times; Impact Factor 2.2)]

Tribble, G. D., Mao, S., James, C. E., and Lamont, R. J. (2006). A Porphyromonas gingivalis Haloacid Dehalogenase Family Phosphatase Interacts with Human Phosphoproteins and is Important for Invasion. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA .103 (29) 11027-32 (Cited 54 times; Impact Factor 9.4)

James, C. E., Hasegawa, Y., Park, Y., Yeung, V., Tribble, G. D., Kuboniwa, M., Demuth, D. R., and Lamont, R. J. (2006). LuxS Involvement in the Regulation of Genes Coding for Hemin and Iron Acquisition Systems in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect. Immun. 74 3834-3844 (Cited 81 times; Impact Factor 4.2)

Kuboniwa, M., Tribble, G. D., James, C. E., Kilic, A. O., Tao, L., Herzberg, M. C., Shizukuishi, S., and Lamont, R. J. (2006) Streptococcus gordonii utilizes several distinct gene functions to recruit Porphyromonas gingivalis into a mixed community. Mol. Microbiol. 60 (1):121-39. (Cited 94 times; Impact Factor 5.36)

Johannessen, G. S., James, C. E., Allison, H. E., Smith, D. L., Saunders, J. R., and McCarthy, A. J (2005). Survival of shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage in a compost model. FEMS Microbiol Lett 245 369-375. (Cited 25 times; Impact Factor 2.2)

Allison, H. E., Sergeant. M, J., James, C. E., Saunders, J. R., Smith, D. L., Sharp, R. J., Marks, T. S., and McCarthy, A. J. (2003). Immunity profiles of wild-type and recombinant verotoxin-encoding bacteriophages and characterization of novel double lysogens. Infect Immun. 71 3409-3418. (Cited 78 times; Impact Factor 4.2)

James, C. E., Stanley, K. N., Allison, H. E., Stewart, C. S., Flint, H. J., Sharp, R. J., Saunders, J. R., and McCarthy, A. J (2001). Lytic and lysogenic infection of diverse Escherichia coli and Shigella strains by verotoxigenic bacteriophages. Appl Environ Microbiol 67 4335-4337. (Cited 99 times; Impact Factor 3.69)

Saunders, J. R., Allison, H. E., James, C. E., McCarthy, A. J., and Sharp, R. J (2001). Phage mediated transfer of virulence genes.” J Chem Tech Biotech. 76 662-666 (review).  (Cited 34 times; Impact Factor 2.045)

Google Scholar H index = 20; i10 index =22 (1701 Citations recorded July 2017)

Molitor A1, James CE2, Fanning S3, Pagès JM1, Davin-Regli A1 (2018) Ram locus is a key regulator to trigger multidrug resistance in Enterobacter aerogenes. J Med Microbiol. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000667. [Epub ahead of print]

Bronowski C1, Mustafa K1, Goodhead I2, James CE2, Nelson C3, Lucaci A3, Wigley P1, Humphrey TJ4, Williams NJ1, Winstanley C1; ENIGMA Consortium. (2017) Campylobacter jejuni transcriptome changes during loss of culturability in water. PLoS One. 12(11): e0188936. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188936.