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School of Health and Society

Professor Christopher Nester

Research Programme Leader


Professor Chris Nester is a Podiatrist by first degree and now leads the Foot and Ankle Research Programme in the School of Health Sciences at the University of Salford.
Chris has led many international foot and ankle biomechanics research projects, with colleagues in the USA, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, China and Australia. He has published over 60 journals papers and delivered numerous invited lectures internationally. Chris has secured over £4million in research funds in the last decade, including a £1.75 Million foot health care research and education partnership with a major foot health care brand. He is active in numerous EU research projects, many with Footwear Technology specialists INESCOP in Spain.

Research Interests

Normal (healthy) and abnormal (disease/injury) biomechanics of the foot and ankle, including the relationship between foot structure and function.

Footwear, orthotic and related interventions that affect foot and lower limb biomechanics.

Foot and ankle biomechanics as it applies to foot health care practice and professional and consumer foot health industries.

Qualifications and Memberships

BSc (Hon) Podiatry

PhD Foot and Ankle Biomechanics


Toro B, Nester CJ, Hudson P. Cluster analysis for the extraction of sagittal gait patterns in children with cerebral palsy. Gait Posture. 2007 Feb;25(2):157-65.

Williams A, Nester C, Rome K. A clinical trial of specialist footwear for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology 2007. Feb;46(2):302-7.

Nester CJ, Liu AM, Ward E, Howard D, Cocheba J, Derrick T, Patterson P. In vitro study of foot kinematics using a dynamic walking simulator.  J Biomech. 2007;40(9):1927-37.

Toro B, Nester CJ, Hudson P. Development and validity of a gait assessment tool. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Mar;88(3):321-7.

Toro B, Nester CJ, Hudson P. Intra and inter clinician reliability of a gait assessment tool. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Mar;88(3):328-32.

Arndt T,  Stacoff A, Wolf P, Nester C, Liu A, Jones R, Howard D, Lundberg A. Intrinsic foot kinematics measured in vivo during the stance phase of slow running. J Biomech. 2007;40(12):2672-8.

Nester C, Liu A, Jones R, Howard D, Lundberg A, Arndt T, Stacoff, A, Wolf, P. Comparison of foot kinematic data from bone mounted, plate mounted and skin mounted markers. J Biomech. 2007 Jul 12;

Preece S, Graham-Smith P, Nester C, Herrington L, Howard D. Influence of hip musculature of limb rotations and foot biomechanics. Gait Posture. 2007 Sep 26;

Wolf P., Stacoff A., Liu A., Nester C., Arndt A., Lundberg A., Stuessi E. Does a specific MR imaging protocol with the subject lying supine replicate his tarsal kinematics seen during upright standing? Biomed Tech (Berl). 2007;52(4):290-4.

Williams AE, Nester CJ., Ravey M. Rheumatoid arthritis patients' experiences of wearing therapeutic footwear - A qualitative investigation. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2007, 8:104

Lundgren, P, C Nester, A Liu, A, Arndt, R Jones, Stacoff, A, Wolf, P. Lundberg, A.  Invasive in vivo measurement of rear, mid and forefoot motion during walking.  Gait Posture. 2008 Jul;28(1):93-100. Epub 2007 Dec 21.

Preece S, Willian P, Nester C, Herrington L, Graham-Smith P, Howard D. Variation in Pelvic Morphology May Prevent the Identification of Anterior Pelvic Tilt. J Man Man Ther. 2008;16(2):113-7.

Findlow, AH, Goulermas, JY, Nester, CJ , Howard D, Kenney L.  Prediction of lower limb kinematics during walking using foot accelerations. Gait Posture. 2008 Jul;28(1):120-6.

Goulermas JY, Findlow AH, Nester CJ, Liatsis P, Zeng XJ, Kenney LP, Tresadern P, Thies SB, Howard D. An instance-based algorithm with auxiliary similarity information for the estimation of gait kinematics from wearable sensors. IEEE Trans Neural Netw. 2008 Sep;19(9):1574-82.

Wolf P, Stacoff A, Liu A, Nester C, Arndt A, Lundberg A, Stuessi E. Functional units of the human foot. Gait Posture. 2008 Oct;28(3):434-41.

Nester CJ, Liu AM, Ward E, Howard D, Cocheba J, Derrick T. Error in the description of foot kinematics due to violation of rigid body assumptions. J Biomech. 2010 Mar 3;43(4):666-72.

Ren L, Howard D, Ren L, Nester C, Tian L. A generic analytical foot rollover model for predicting translational ankle kinematics in gait simulation studies. J Biomech. 2010 Jan 19;43(2):194-202. Epub 2009 Oct 29.

Nester CJ, Leardini A, Cavanagh PR, Rosenbaum D, Burns J. International Foot and Ankle Biomechanics Community (i-FAB): past, present and beyond. J Foot Ankle Res. 2009 Jun 16;2:19.

Nester CJ. Lessons from dynamic cadaver and invasive bone pin studies: do we know how the foot really moves during gait? J Foot Ankle Res. 2009 May 27;2:18.

Kallenberg LA, Preece S, Nester C, Hermens HJ. Reproducibility of MUAP properties in array surface EMG recordings of the upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2009 Dec;19(6):e536-42.

Tao K, Wang DM, Wang C, Wang X, Liu A, Nester CJ, Howard D. In Vivo Experimental Validation of a computational model of the human foot. Journal of Bionic Engineering. Journal of Bionic Engineering. 2009, Volume: 6, Issue: 4. Pages: 387-397.

Forghaney S, Tyson S, Nester C. Lateral wedge. Early observations of the effects of lateral wedge orthoses on lower limb muscle length and potential for exacerbating spasticity. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2010 Sep;34(3):319-26.

Nester CJ, Liu AM, Ward E, Howard D, Cocheba J, Derrick T. Error in the description of foot kinematics due to violation of rigid body assumptions. J Biomech. 2010 Mar 3;43(4):666-72.

Williams AE, Nester CJ, Ravey MI, Kottink A, Morey G. They improve my mobility but restrict my activities" - Women's experiences of wearing therapeutic footwear for foot problems associated with rheumatoid arthritis- a qualitative investigation. J Foot Ankle Res. 2010 Oct 8;3:23.

Thies SB, Kenney LP, Howard D, Nester C, Ormerod M, Newton R, Baker R, Faruk M, Maclennan H. Biomechanics for inclusive urban design: Effects of tactile paving on older adults' gait when crossing the street. J Biomech. 2011 May 17;44(8):1599-604. Epub 2011 Apr 8.

Wang X, Ma X, Ma L, Chen L, Zhang C, Huang J, Gu X, Jiang J, Wang D, Wang C, Tao K, Nester C, Williams A, Liu A. Computer Assisted Design of Therapeutic Personalized Footwear for Diabetic Foot: a Preliminary Study. Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics, 2011;31(5):514-529

Findlow AH, Nester CJ, Bowker P. Foot kinematics in patients with two patterns of pathological plantar hyperkeratosis. J Foot Ankle Res. 2011 Feb 9;4:7.

Forghany S, Tyson S, Nester CJ, Preece S, Jones R. Foot posture after stroke: frequency, nature and clinical significance. Clin Rehabil. 2011 Jul 27.

Phethean J, Nester CJ. The influence of body weight, body mass index and gender on plantar pressures: Results of a cross-sectional study in healthy children’s feet. Gait and Posture, Gait Posture. 2012 Apr 6.

Jarvis H, Nester CJ, Jones RK, Bowden P, Forghaney S, Liu A. Development and intra and inter clinician reliability of a clinical foot biomechanics assessment.  Journal of Foot and Ankle Research. 2012, 5:14.

Liu A, Nester CJ, Jones RK, Lundgren P, Lund-Berg A, Arndt A, Wolf P. The Effect of an Antipronation Foot Orthosis on Ankle and Subtalar Kinematics. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Oct 2.

Dubbeldam R, Nester C, Nene AV, Hermens HJ, Buurke JH. Kinematic coupling relationships exist between non-adjacent segments of the foot and ankle of healthy subjects. Gait Posture. 2012 Aug 27.

Jones RK, Nester CJ, Richards JD, Kim WY, Johnson DS, Jari S, Laxton P, Tyson SF. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Gait Posture. 2012 Aug 21.

Hashmi F, Richards BS, Forghany S, Hatton AL, Nester CJ. The formation of friction blisters on the foot: the development of a laboratory-based blister creation model. Skin Res Technol. 2012 Aug 14.

Germani M, Mandolini M, Mengoni M, Nester C, Raffaeli R. Tools for design and validation of shoe lasts for diabetic patients. Footwear Science, 4:3, 221-241.