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School of Environment and Life Sciences

Professor Robert Young

Chair in Wildlife Conservation


Ever since I was a child I was fascinated by animals and their behaviour.  Growing-up in the 1970s I became aware that if I wished to study animals in the wild or zoos that animals first needed to be conserved and their welfare protected.  It was, thus, that studied for a BSc (Hons) in Biology at the University of Nottingham (1986-1989) and then did a PhD in Animal Behaviour/Animal Welfare at the University of Edinburgh (1989-1993). 

After this I worked for four years, as a researcher, at the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland (Edinburgh Zoo) before moving full-time into academia.  Whilst working at Edinburgh Zoo I learnt about how zoos can make significant contribution to animal conservation whilst at the same time respecting the wellbeing of their animals.  From 2001-2013, I worked as Professor of Animal Behaviour and Conservation at a Brazilian university (PUC Minas in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais) where I was able to realise my lifelong ambition of conducting fieldwork on everything from mammals, birds and reptiles to fish. 

In 2013, I returned to the UK accepting the Chair in Wildlife Conservation at the University of Salford Manchester where I divide my time between field conservation projects mainly in Brazil but also Madagascar – and zoo-based research (both conservation and animal welfare orientated).  In my career to date I have published research on approximately 50 different species of animal (everything from giant anteaters to humans).  I am the author of more than 100 full scientific papers and one textbook about zoo animal welfare. 

Recently, my research group has become very interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary, and we are using a wide range of methodologies and techniques to answer scientific questions including: behavioural observations, biotelemetry, molecular biology, microbiology, colour analysis, machine learning (artificial intelligence), bioacoustics, biogeography, social network analyses, physiological, amongst others. 

All of this rich experience I bring to the supervision of my postgraduate students and to my teaching/tutoring/supervision of undergraduate students.  My greatest pleasure as an academic is sharing my wonder of animals with the students that I supervise and teach.


Undergraduate: Introduction to Zoo Biology; Zoo Animal Management: Final Year Project; Study Skills; Wildlife Study Skills; Evolution.

Postgraduate (MSc): Wildlife Biology, Ecology and Behaviour; Contemporary Topics in Wildlife Conservation; Acoustics Master Class.

Research Interests

Animal Conservation; Animal Behaviour; Animal Welfare; Zoos.

Qualifications and Memberships

BSc (Hons) Biology (Nottingham 1989);

PhD Animal Behaviour and Welfare (Edinburgh 1993)


1. GOULART, V.D.L.R., BOUBLI, J.P., YOUNG, R.J. in press. Medium/Long wavelength sensitive opsin diversity in Pitheciidae. Scientific Reports.

2. PASSOS, L.F., GARCIA, G., YOUNG, R.J. in press. The tonic immobility test: Do wild and captive Golden Mantella frogs (Mantella aurantiaca) have the same response? PLoS ONE.

3. PASSOS, L.F., GARCIA, G., YOUNG, R.J. in press. Neglecting the call of the wild: Captive frogs like the sound of their own voice. PLoS ONE.

4. GALDINDO, C.A., REIS, S.V., LISBOA, C., YOUNG, R.J. in press. Social spacing of the montane lizard Tropidurus montanus. Herpetological Journal.

5. PERILLO, A., MAZZONI, L.G., PASSOS, L.F., GOULART, V.D.L.R., DUCA, C., YOUNG, R.J. 2017. Anthropogenic noise reduces bird species richness and diversity in urban parks. IBIS 159, 638-646.

6. PENA, J.C.D.C., MARTELLO, F., RIBEIRO, M.C., ARMITAGE, R.A., YOUNG, R.J., RODRIGUES, M. 2017. Street trees reduce the negative effects of urbanization on birds. PLoS ONE 12(3), e0174484.

7. COELHO, C.M., AZEVEDO, C.S., GUIMARÃES, M.A.B.V., YOUNG, R.J. 2016. The effect of different environmental enrichment items on fecal glucocorticoid metabolites and behavior in captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 19, 253-262.

8. DUTRA, L.M.L., YOUNG, R.J., GALDINO, C.A.B, VASCONCELLOS, A.S. 2016. Do apprehended saffron finches know how to survive predators? A careful look at reintroduction candidates. Behavioural Processes 125, 6-12.

9. FORTI, I.R.N., YOUNG, R.J. 2016. Human commercial models’ eye colour shows negative frequency dependent selection. PLoS ONE 11, e0168458.

10.PENA, J.C., MAGALHAES, D.M., MOURAO, A.C.M., YOUNG, R.J., RODRIGUES, M. 2016. The green infrastructure of a highly-urbanized Neotropical city: the role of the urban vegetation in preserving native biodiversity. REVSBAU 11, 66-78.

11.TEIXEIRA, B., HIRSCH, A., GOULART, V.D.L.R., PASSOS, L.F., TEIXEIRA, C.P., JAMES, P., YOUNG R.J. 2016. Good neighbours: Distribution of the black tufted marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) in an urban environment.  Wildlife Research 42, 579-589.

12.TEIXEIRA, C.P., PASSOS, L.F., GOULART, V.D.L.R., HIRSCH, A., RODRIGUES, M., YOUNG, R.J. 2016. Evaluating patterns of human-reptile conflict in an urban environment. Wildlife Research 42, 570-578.

13.DUARTE, M.H.L., PIERETTI, N., SOUSA-LIMA, R.S., RODRIGUES, M., YOUNG, R.J., FARINA, A. 2015. The impact of noise from open cast-mining on Atlantic forest biophony. Biological Conservation 191, 623-631.

14.DUTRA, L.M.L., YOUNG, R.J. 2015. Can enrichment make Brazilian tapir spend more time on view to the public? Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Sciences 18, 74-81.

15.PIERETTI, N., DUARTE, M.H.L., SOUSA-LIMA, R.S., RODRIGUES, M., YOUNG, R.J., FARINA, A. 2015. Determining sampling routines for passive acoustic studies in different tropical ecosystems. Tropical Conservation Science 8, 215-234.

16.CLYVIA, A., KAIZER, M.C., SANTOS, R.V., YOUNG, R.J., CASAR, C. 2014. Do wild titi monkeys show empathy? Primate Biology 1, 23-28.

17.FONSECA, I.A.T., PASSOS, R.L.F., ARAUJO, F.A., LIMA, M.R.M., LACERDA, D.R., PIRES, W., SOARES, D.D., YOUNG, R.J., RODRIGUES, L.O.C. 2014. Exercising for food: bringing the laboratory closer to nature. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 3274-3281.

18.GALDINO, C.A.B., HORTO, G., YOUNG, R.J. 2014. An update to a bead-tagging method for marking lizards. Herpetological Review 45, 587-589.

19.PASSOS, L.F., COUTINHO, M.E., YOUNG, R.J. 2014. Demographic and growth analysis of broad snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) in a disturbed environment in Southeastern Brazil. Herpetological Journal 24: 223-228.

20.PASSOS, L.F., SANTO, H.M.E., YOUNG, R.J. 2014. Enriching tortoises: Assessing color preference. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Sciences 17: 274-281.

21.QUADROS, S.F., VECCI, M.A., GOULART, V.D.L., PASSOS, L.F., YOUNG, R.J. 2014.  Zoo visitor effect on mammal behaviour: does noise matter? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 156: 78-84.

22.SANTOS, M.N., DUARTE, M.H.L., YOUNG, R.J. 2014. Behavioural and ecological aspects of black tufted-ear marmosets, Callithrix penicillata (Geoffroy, 1812) (Primates: Callitrichidae) in an urban environment. Revista de Etologia 13, 37-46.

23.SCHORK, I.G., YOUNG, R.J. 2014. Rapid animal welfare assessment: An archaeological approach. Biology Letters 10: 20140390.

24.TEIXEIRA, B., YOUNG, R.J. 2014. Can captive bred American bullfrogs learn to avoid a model avian predator? Acta Ethologica 17: 15-22.

25.CASAR, C., ZUBERBULHER, K., YOUNG, R.J., BYRNE, R. 2013. Titi monkey call sequences vary with predator location and type. Biology Letters 9: 20130535.

26.GOULART, V.D.L., YOUNG, R.J. 2013. Selfish behaviour as an anti-predator response in schooling fish? Animal Behaviour 86: 443-450.

27.AZEVEDO, C.S., da SILVA, M.C., TEIXEIRA, T.P., YOUNG, R.J., GARCIA, Q.S., RODRIGUES, M. 2013. Effect of passage through the gut of Greater Rheas on the germination of Cerrado and Caatinga seeds. EMU 113, 177-182.

28.DE AZEVEDO, C.S., LIMA, M.F.F., CIPRESTE, C.F., YOUNG, R.J., RODRIGUES, M. 2013. Using environmental enrichment to reduce the expression of abnormal behaviours in Greater rhea Rhea americana at Belo Horizonte Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook 43, 163-170.

29.SPECHT, G.V.A., GONÇLAVES, G.L., YOUNG, R.J. 2013. Comportamento de caça da coruja buraqueira, Athenecunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Aves: Strigiformes) em ambiente urbano em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Ludiana 11: 17-20.

30.VENTURA, S.P.R., GALDINO, C.A.B., YOUNG, R.J. 2013. Eurolophosaurus nanuzae (calango): courtship and copulation. Herpetological Bulletin 124: 125.

31.AZEVEDO, C.S., YOUNG, R.J., RODRIGUES, M. 2012. Failure of captive-born greater rheas (Rhea americana, Rheidae, Aves) to discriminate between predator and non-predator models. Acta Ethologica 15, 179-185.

32.CASAR, C., BYRNE, R., HOPPITT, W., YOUNG, R.J., ZUBERBUHLER, K. 2012. The referential call system of wild black-fronted titi monkeys. Animal Behaviour 84, 405-411.

33.CASAR, C., BYRNE, R., YOUNG, R.J., ZUBERBUHLER, K. 2012. The alarm call system of wild black-fronted titi monkeys, Callicebus nigrifrons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 66, 653-667.

34.SANTOS, G.P., GALVÃO, C., YOUNG, R.J., 2012. The diet of wild black fronted titi monkeys, Callicebus nigrifrons during a bamboo masting year. Primates, 53, 265-272.

35.AZEVEDO, C.S., LIMA, M.F.F., DA SILVA, V.C.A., YOUNG, R.J., RODRIGUES, M. 2012. Visitor influence on the behaviour of captive greater rheas (Rhea americana, Rheidae Aves). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 15, 113-125.

36.AZEVEDO, C.S., SILVA, K.S., FERRAZ, J.B., TINOCO, H.P., YOUNG, R.J., RODRIGUES, M. 2012. Does people’s knowledge about an endangered bird species differ between rural and urban communities? The case of the greater rhea (Rhea americana, Rheidae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Ararajuba, 20, 8-18.

37.DUARTE, M.H.L., GOULART, V.D.L.R., YOUNG, R.J. 2012. Designing laboratory marmoset housing: what can we learn from urban marmosets? Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 137, 127-136.

38.SOUZA, C.S.A., TEIXEIRA, C.P., YOUNG, R.J., 2012. The welfare of an unwanted guest in an urban environment: The case of the white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris). Animal Welfare, 21, 177-183.

39.AZEVEDO, P.G., MELO, R.M.C., YOUNG, R.J. 2011. Feeding and social behavior of the piabanha, Brycon devillei (Castelnau, 1855) (Characidae: Bryconinae) in the wild, with a note on following behavior. Neotropical Ichthyology, 9, 807-814.

40.COEHLO, C.M., AZEVEDO, C.S., YOUNG, R.J. 2011. Behavioral responses of maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Canidae) to different categories of environmental enrichment stimuli and their implications for successful reintroduction. Zoo Biology, 30, 1-17.

41.DUARTE, M.H.L., VECCI, M.A., HIRSCH, A., YOUNG, R.J. 2011. Noisy human neighbours affect where urban monkeys live. Biology Letters, 7, 840-842.

42.DUARTE, M.H.L., YOUNG, R.J. 2011. Sleeping site selection by urban marmosets under conditions of exceptionally high predator density. International Journal of Primatology, 32, 329-334.

43.LEAL, B.B., ALVES, G.E.S., DOUGLAS, R.H., BRINGEL, B., YOUNG, R.J., HADDAD, J.P.A., VIANA, W.S., FALEIROS, R.R. 2011. Cortisol circadian rhythm ratio: a simple method to detect stressed horses at higher risk of colic. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 31, 188-190.

44.LEITE, G.C., DUARTE, M.H.L., YOUNG, R.J. 2011. Human-marmoset interactions in a city park.  Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 132, 187-192.

45.AZEVEDO, P.G., MESQUITA, F.O., YOUNG, R.J. 2010. Fishing for gaps in science: a bibliographic analysis of Brazilian freshwater ichthyology from 1986 to 2005. Journal of Fish Biology, 76, 2177-2193.

46.GOULART, V.D.L.R., TEIXEIRA, C.P., YOUNG, R.J. 2010. Analysis of callouts made in relation to wild urban marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) and their implications for urban species management. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 56, 641-649.

47.REIS, E.C., SOARES, L.S., VARGAS, S.M., SANTOS, F.R., YOUNG, R.J., BJORNDAL, K.A., BOLTEN, A.B., LÔBO-HAJDU, G. 2010. Genetic composition, population structure and phylogeography of the loggerhead sea turtle: colonization hypothesis for the Brazilian rookeries. Conservation Genetics, 11, 1467-1477.

48.SCHETINI, C.A., YOUNG, R.J., RODRIGUES, M. 2010. The role of Brazilian Zoos in Ex situ bird conservation. Zoo Biology, 29, 1-17.

49.SCHETINI, C.A., FERRAZ, J.B., TINOCO, H.P., YOUNG, R.J., RODRIGUES, M. 2010. Time-activity budget of greater rheas (Rhea americana, Aves): the role of habitat, time of the day, season and group size. Acta Ethologica, 13, 109-117.

50.DE MELO, L.F.B., SÁBATO, M.A.L., VAZ, M.E.M., YOUNG, R.J., COELHO, C.M. 2009. First observations of nest attendance behavior by wild maned wolves. Zoo Biology, 28, 69-74.

51.GOULART, V.D., AZEVEDO, P.G., VAN DE SCHEPOP, J.A., TEIXEIRA, C.P., BARÇANTE, L., AZEVEDO, C.S., YOUNG, R.J. 2009. GAPs in the study of zoo and wild animal welfare. Zoo Biology, 28, 561-573.

52.OTTONI, I., DE OLIVEIRA, F., YOUNG, R.J. 2009. Estimating the diet of urban birds: The problems of anthropogenic food and food digestibility. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 117, 42-46.

53.CÄSAR, C., FRANCO, E.S., CASTRO, N.S.G., YOUNG, R.J. 2008. Observed case of maternal infanticide in a wild group of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons). Primates, 49, 143-145.

54.CÄSAR, C., YOUNG, R.J. 2008. A case of adoption in a wild group of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons). Primates, 49, 146-148.

55.COELHO, C.M., DE MELO, L.F.B., SÁBATO, M.A.L., MAGNI, E.M.V., HIRSCH, A., YOUNG, R.J. 2008. Habitat use by wild maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) in a transition zone environment. Journal of Mammalogy, 89, 97-104.

56.FERNANDES, T.N., YOUNG, R.J. 2008. Fluctuations in the tympanic membrane temperatures of non-restrained captive giant anteaters and southern tamanduas. Journal of Zoology, 274, 94-98.

57.GUEDES, D., YOUNG, R.J., STRIER, K.B. 2008. Energetic costs of reproduction in female northern muriquis, Brachyteles hypoxanthus (Primates: Platyrrinhi: Atelidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 25, 587-593.

58.MESQUITA, F, GODINHO, H, AZEVEDO, P, YOUNG, R.J. 2008. A preliminary study into the effectiveness of stroboscopic light as an aversive stimulus for fish. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 111, 402-407.

59.BANDEIRA DE MELO, L.F., SÁBATO, M.A.L., MAGNI, E.M.V., YOUNG, R.J., COELHO, C.M. 2007. Secret lives of maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus Illiger 1815): as revealed by GPS tracking collars. Journal of Zoology, v.271, 27-36.

60.COELHO, C.M., DE MELO, L.F.B., SABATO, M.A.L., RIZEL, D., YOUNG, R.J. 2007. A note on the use of GPS collars to monitor wild maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger 1815) (Mammalia, Canidae). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 105, 259-264.

61.DE AZEVEDO, C. S., CIPRESTE, C.F., YOUNG, R.J. 2007. Environmental enrichment: A GAP analysis? Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 102, 329-343.

62.MESQUITA, F.O., YOUNG, R.J. 2007. The behavioural responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to anti-predator training. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 106, 144-154.

63.POSSAMAI, C.B., YOUNG, R.J., MENDES, S.L., STRIER, K.B. 2007. Socio-sexual behavior of female northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus). American Journal of Primatology, 69, 766-776.

64.TEIXEIRA, C., SCHETINI, C.A., MENDL, M.T., CIPRESTE, C.F., YOUNG, R.J. 2007. Revisiting translocation and reintroduction programmes: The importance of considering stress. Animal Behaviour, 73, 1-13.

65.SABATO, M.A.L., MELO, L.F.B., MAGNI, E.M.V., YOUNG, R.J., COELHO, C.M. 2006. A note on the effect of the full moon on the activity of wild maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus. Behavioural Processes, 73, 228-230.

66.SCHETINI, C.A., TINOCO, H.P., FERRAZ, J.B., YOUNG, R.J. 2006. The fishing rhea: a new food item in the diet of wild greater rheas (Rhea americana, Rheidae, Aves). Ararajuba: Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 14, 247-249

67.SCHETINI, C.A., TINOCO, H.P., FERRAZ, J.B., YOUNG, R.J. 2006. Unusual nest site for greater rheas (Rhea americana, Rheidae, Aves). Ararajuba: Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 14, 251-252.

68.SCHETINI, C. A., YOUNG, R.J. 2006. Do greater rheas remember anti-predator training? Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 23, 194-201.

69.SCHETINI, C. A., YOUNG, R.J. 2006. The behavioural responses of greater rhea to anti-predator training. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 23, 186-193.

70.SCHETINI, C. A., YOUNG, R.J. 2006. The effects of shyness and boldness on greater rheas responses to anti-predator training. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 23, 202-210.

71.TEIXEIRA, C.P., HIRSCH, A., PERINI, H., YOUNG, R.J. 2006. Marsupials from space: fluctuating asymmetry, geographical information systems and animal conservation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, 273, 1007-1012.

72.LIMA, D.S., VERGARA-PARENTE, J.E., YOUNG, R.J., PASZKIEWICZ, E. 2005. Training of Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758 (mammalia: sirenia) as a management technique for individual welfare. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals, 4, 61-68.

73.POSSAMAI, C.B., YOUNG, R.J., DE OLIVEIRA, R.C., MENDES, S.L., STRIER, K.B. 2005. Age-related variation in copulations of male northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus). Folia Primatologica, 76, 33-36.

74.GUEDES, D., YOUNG, R.J. 2004. A case of pseudo-pregnancy in captive brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba). Folia Primatologica, 75, 335-338.

75.WHITFORT, H.L., YOUNG, R.J. 2004. Trends in the captive breeding of threatened and endangered birds in British zoos, 1988-1997. Zoo Biology, 23, 85-89.

76.YOUNG, R.J., CIPRESTE, C.F. 2004. Applying animal learning theory: training captive animals to comply with husbandry and veterinary procedures. Animal Welfare, 13, 225-232.

77.COOPER, J.J., YOUNG, R.J. 2003. Clever hounds: social cognition in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 81, 229-244.

78.MCKINLEY, S., YOUNG, R.J. 2003. The efficacy of the model-rival method when compared with operant conditioning for training domestic dogs to perform a retrieval-selection task. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 81, 357-365.

79.YOUNG, R.J., LAWRENCE, A.B. 2003. Do domestic pigs in controlled environments contrafreeload? Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Sciences, 5, 309-318.

80.YOUNG, R.J., WIELOCH, D.R., COELHO, C.M. 2003. A note on the climbing abilities of giant anteaters, Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Xenarthra: Myrmecophagidae). Boletim do museu Melo Leitão, 10, 36-45.

81.YOUNG, R.J. 2003. Uncloaking the magician: The contributions of comparative psychology to the understanding of animal training. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 15, 174-185.

82.BAYFIELD, A., YOUNG, R.J. 2002.  The effect of parental age gap on the sex ratio of golden lion tamarins born in zoos. Folia Primatologica, 73, 214-216.

83.WEST, R., YOUNG, R.J. 2002. Do domestic dogs show any evidence of being able to count? Animal Cognition, 5, 183-186.

84.VICK, S.J., ANDERSON, J.R., YOUNG, R.J. 2000. Maracas for macacas? Evaluation of three potential enrichment objects in two species of zoo-housed macaques. Zoo Biology, 19, 181-191.

85.FARMER, K.H., HITCHCOCK, D., YOUNG, R.J. 1998. Prey-size selection under conditions of competitive foraging in captive chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica, 69, 273-276.

86.MURRAY, A.J., WARAN, N.K., YOUNG, R.J. 1998. Environmental enrichment for Australian mammals. Animal Welfare, 7, 415-425.

87.YOUNG, R.J. 1998. Behavioural studies of guenons, Cercopithecus spp. at Edinburgh Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook, 36, 49-56.

88.BRYCE, J., PRITCHARD, J.S., WARAN, N.K., YOUNG, R.J. 1997. Comparison of methods for obtaining population estimates for squirrels in relation to damage due to bark stripping. Mammal Review, 27, 165-170.

89.COULTON, L.E., WARAN, N.K., YOUNG, R.J. 1997. Effects of foraging enrichment on the behaviour of parrots. Animal Welfare, 6, 357-363.

90.INGS, R., WARAN, N.K., YOUNG, R.J. 1997. Attitude of zoo visitors to the idea of feeding live prey to zoo animals. Zoo Biology, 16, 343-347.

91.INGS, R., WARAN, N K., YOUNG, R.J. 1997. Effect of wood-pile feeders on the behaviour of captive bush dogs, Speothos venaticus. Animal Welfare, 6, 145-152.

92.LYONS, J., YOUNG, R.J., DEAG, J.M. 1997. The effects of physical characteristics of the environment and feeding regime on the behaviour of captive felids. Zoo Biology, 16, 71-83.

93.YOUNG, R.J. 1997. The importance of food presentation for animal welfare and conservation. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 56, 1095-1104.

94.SKELTON, T.M., WARAN, N.K., YOUNG, R.J. 1996. Assessment of motivation in the lizard, Chalsides ocellatus. Animal Welfare, 5, 63-69.

95.VEASEY, J.S., WARAN, N.K., YOUNG, R.J. 1996. On comparing the behaviour of zoo housed animals with wild conspecifics as a welfare indicator. Animal Welfare, 5, 13-24.

96.VEASEY, J.S., WARAN, N.K., YOUNG, R.J. 1996. On comparing the behaviour of zoo housed animals with wild conspecifics as a welfare indicator, using the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) as a model. Animal Welfare, 5, 139-153.

97.WILLIAMS, B.G., WARAN, N.K., CARRUTHERS, J., YOUNG, R.J. 1996. The effect of a moving bait on the behaviour of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Animal Welfare, 5, 271-281.

98.WINSKILL, L., WARAN, N.K., YOUNG, R.J. 1996.The effect of a foraging device (a modified 'Edinburgh Foodball') on the behaviour of the stabled horse. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 48, 25-35.

99.YOUNG, R.J., LAWRENCE, A.B. 1996. The effects of high and low rates of food reinforced on the behaviour of pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 49, 365-374.

100. WINSKILL, L., WARAN, N.K., CHANNING, C., YOUNG, R.J. 1995. Stereotypies in the stabled horse: causes, treatment and prevention. Current Science, 69, 310-316.

101. YOUNG, R.J., CARRUTHERS, J., LAWRENCE, A.B. 1994. The effect of foraging device (The Edinburgh Foodball) on the behaviour of pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 39, 237-247.

102.YOUNG, R.J., LAWRENCE, A.B. 1994. Feeding behaviour of pigs in groups monitored by a computerised feeding system. Animal Production, 58, 145-152.

103. YOUNG, R.J., MACLEOD, H.A., LAWRENCE, A.B. 1994. Effect of manipulandum design on operant responding in pigs. Animal Behaviour, 47, 1488-1490.

104. MCGREGOR, P.K., CLAYTON, H., KOLB, U., STOCKLEY, P., YOUNG, R.J. 1990. Individual differences in the displays of fan-tailed warblers Cisticola juncidis: associations with territory and male quality. Ibis, 132, 111-118.

105. YOUNG, R.J., CLAYTON, H., BARNARD, C.J. 1990. Risk-sensitive foraging in bitterlings, Rhodeus sericus: effects of food requirement and breeding site quality. Animal Behaviour, 40, 288-297.