APA 7th edition

Student studying

APA 7th edition is our official Harvard referencing scheme and the main referencing style in use at the University.

APA 7th Edition Guides

Referencing examples

Our easy to follow list shows how to reference more than 40 commonly used information sources:

How to reference different information sources using APA 7th Edition.

Acts of Parliament

See the entry for Statute.

Art exhibitions

Format:
Curator, A. B. (Year) or (Year-Year). Title of exhibition [Exhibition]. Gallery, Location. http://URL for exhibition on gallery website, if available.

Note: if the curator is not know, start your reference with the title of the exhibition.

Examples:
Howes, N., & Corridan, F. (2020-2021). Grayson’s Art Club [Exhibition]. Manchester Art Gallery, Manchester. https://manchesterartgallery.org/exhibitions-and-events/exhibition/graysons-art-club/

Represent! Voices 100 years on [Exhibition]. (2018-2019).  Peoples’ History Museum, Manchester. https://phm.org.uk/exhibitions/represent-voices-100-years-on/

In-text citation:
(“Represent! Voices 100 years on”, 2018-2019)
Represent! Voices 100 years on” (2018-2019)

Artworks

Format:
Artist, A. B. (Year). Title of work [Medium]. Gallery Name, Location. http://URL of gallery website if image available online

Examples:

Munch, E. (1891). Melancholy [Oil painting]. Munch Museum, Oslo.

Reyntiens, P. (1966). Cross, panel [Stained glass]. Victoria and Albert Museum, London. https://www.vam.ac.uk/collections/stained-glass

In-text citation:

(Munch, 1891)

Munch (1891)

Blogs

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of article. Title of blog. http://...

Example:

Strzelecka, M. A. (2021, 5 May). How littering affects hedgehogs. Hedgehog Friendly Campus. https://blogs.salford.ac.uk/hedgehog-friendly-campus/

In-text citation:

(Strzelecka, 2021)

Strzelecka (2021)

Books - Printed

Format:

Author, A.B. (Year). Title (Edition.) Publisher.

Example:

Fox, R. P., & Madura, J. (2017). International Financial Management (4th ed.). Cengage Learning.

In-text citation:

(Fox & Madura, 2021)

Fox and Madura (2021)

 

Books - Chapters in books

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of book. (pp.xxx-xxx). Publisher.

Examples:

Lawrence, J. A. (2020). Grief and loss. In M. Rogers, D. Whitaker, D. Edmondson, & D. Peach (Eds.), Developing skills & knowledge for social work practice (2nd ed., pp. 310-317). Sage.

In-text citation:

(Lawrence, 2021)

Lawrence (2021)

Cases

Format:

Party v Party [Year of reporting] Where Reported Abbreviation case number

Example:

Derwent Holdings Ltd v Trafford Borough Council, Tesco Stores Limited, Lancashire County Cricket Club [2011] EWCA Civ 832

In-text citation:

Derwent Holdings Ltd v Trafford Borough Council (2003)

Conference proceedings

Conference proceedings are published in a book or journal and should therefore be treated as book chapter or journal article.

Conference papers (with DOI)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of conference paper [Type of presentation]. Name of Conference, Location of Conference. https://doi.org/10.doi...

Example:

Barresi, S., Meziane, F., Rezgui, Y., & Lima, C. (2005). Architecture to support semantic resources interoperability. [Paper presentation]. First ACM International Workshop on Interoperability of Heterogeneous Information Systems (IHIS 2005), Bremen, Germany. https://doi.org/10.1145/1096967.1096984

In-text citation:

(Barresi et al., 2005)

Barresi et al. (2005)

Conference papers (no DOI)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of conference paper [Type of presentation]. Name of Conference, Location of Conference. http://...

Examples:

Naggasa, A., Augusthus Nelson, L., & Haynes, B. (2018). Use of finite element analysis to investigate the structural behaviour of masonry arch bridges subject to foundation settlement [Conference paper]. 10th International Masonry Conference, Milan, Italy. http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/46832/

Osaji, E. E. (2018). Enhancing Building Energy and Environmental Assessment Certification (BEEAC) [Keynote Speech]. CIBSE ASHRAE Group Webinar,  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W6KC5k47YiY

In-text citation:

(Naggasa et al., 2018)

Naggasa et al. (2018)

Datasets

Format:

Author. (Year). Title (ID number, Version number) [Dataset]. Publisher.  https://doi.org/10.doi...

Example:

Yates, H. M. (2019). Flame Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition NiO hole transport layers for mesoporous carbon perovskite cells (Version 1) [Dataset]. University of Salford. https://doi.org/10.17866/rd.salford.9608828.v1

In-text citation:

(Yates, 2019)

Yates (2019)

Dictionary entry (online)

Format:

Title of Entry. (Year). Title of Dictionary. Publisher. http://...

Example:

Triskaidekaphobia. (2015). Collins English Dictionary. Collins. http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/triskaidekaphobia

In-text citation:

(“Triskaidekaphobia”, 2015)

Triskaidekaphobia” (2015)

eBooks (with DOI)

Format:

Author. (Year). Title (Edition.) Publisher. https://doi.org/10.doi...

Example:

Procter, C. T., & Kozak-Holland, M. P. (2020). Managing transformation projects: tracing lessons from the industrial to the digital revolution. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-33035-4

In-text citation:

(Proctor & Kozak-Holland, 2020)

Proctor and Kozak-Holland (2020)

eBooks - Chapters in e-books

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of book. (pp.xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://www.somewebsite.co.uk

Examples:

Chippindale, C. (2010). Ambition, deference, discrepancy, consumption: the intellectual background to a post–processual archaeology. In N. Yoffee & A. Sherratt (Eds.), Archaeological theory. (pp. 27-36). doi:10.1017/CBO9780511720277

Gorman, M. J. (2004). The angel and the compass: Athanasius Kircher’s magnetic geography. In P. Findlen (Ed.), Athanasius Kircher: the last man who knew everything (pp. 239-259). Retrieved from http://www.dawsonera.com/

eBooks (from a Library database)

Format:

Author. (Year). Title (Edition.) Publisher.

Example:

Barrett, P. S., & Finch, E. F. (2013). Facilities management: The dynamics of excellence (3rd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell.

Note: if the URL for the book contains the words salford.idm.oclc (e.g. ebookcentral-proquest-com.salford.idm.oclc.org/lib/salford) do not use it as it may not open for your reader.

In-text citation:

(Barrett & Finch, 2013)

Barrett and Finch (2013)

Ephemera

Ephemera

Format:

Company/organisation. (Year). Title [Description]. Viewed date and location for transitory material. Producer if different to company/organisation.

Example - Billboard:

The Cooperative (2011). Our revolution [Billboard]. Viewed 21 March, 2011, Chapel Street, Salford.

Example - Leaflet:

Salford Museum and Art Gallery (n.d.) Souvenir price list [Leaflet].

Example - Packaging:

Eurax Cream [Packaging]. (n.d.)

In-text citation:

(Salford Museum and Art Gallery, n.d.)

Salford Museum and Art Gallery (n.d.)

Facebook page

Format:

Author, A. B. or Organisation. (Year). Title of page [Facebook page]. Retrieved Day Month, Year, from http://...

Example:

Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved 16 August, 2021, from https://www.facebook.com/CIBSE/

In-text citation:

(Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, n.d.)

Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (n.d.)

Facebook post

Format:

Author, A. B. or Organisation. (Year, Day Month). First 20 words of the post tweet [Attachment – if applicable] [Post type]. Facebook. http://...

Example:

Institute of Biomedical Science. (2021, 14 August). How can we be more environmentally friendly in the lab? Sustainable lab expert Martin Farley & sustainability advocate Sheri Scott [Link attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/148731651820991/posts/4827863743907735/

In-text citation:

(Institute of Biomedical Science, 2021)

Institute of Biomedical Science (2021

Films

Format:

Director, A.B. (Director). (Year). Title [Format]. Publisher.

Example:

Knudsen, E. (Director). (2010). The silent accomplice [Film]. One Day Films.

In-text citation:

(Knudsen, 2010)

Knudsen (2010)

Instagram

Format:

Author, A. B. or Organisation [@Instagram handle]. (Year, Day Month). First 20 words of the post [Description]. Instagram. http://...

Examples:

The Lowry [@the_lowry]. (2021, 1 June). The earliest known sports painting by #LSLowry to go on view at The Lowry THIS WEEKEND! Work on loan from [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/CPk_9W4tLpy/

In-text citation:

(The Lowry, 2021)

The Lowry (2021)

Journal articles (Print)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example:

Cameron, M. (2006). Nesting habitat of the glossy black-cockatoo in central New South Wales. Biological Conservation, 127(4), 402-410.

In-text citation:

(Cameron, 2006)

Cameron (2006)

Journal articles (electronic - with page numbers)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers.  https://doi.org/10.doi... or https://www.URL...

Examples:

Cox, T. (2008). Scraping sounds and disgusting noises. Applied Acoustics, 69(12), 1195-1204.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apacoust.2007.11.004

Drumm, I. A. (2007). A hybrid finite element / finite difference time domain technique for modelling the acoustics of surfaces within a medium. Acta Acustica united with Acustica, 93(5), 804-809. https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/dav/aaua/2007/00000093/00000005/art00013 

In-text citation:

(Cox, 2008)

Cox (2008)

Journal articles (electronic - with an article number)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), Article number.  https://doi.org/10.doi... or https://www.URL...

Example:

Biscaya, S., & Elkadi, H. A. (2021). A smart ecological urban corridor for the Manchester Ship Canal. Cities, 110, Article 103042. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2020.103042

In-text citation:

(Biscaya & Elkadi, 2021)

Biscaya and Elkadi (2021)

LinkedIn Learning Video

Format:

Instructor, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of video [Video]. Site. https://...

Example:

Patel, Y. (2017, 2 October). SPSS for Academic Research [Video].  LinkedIn Learning. https://www.linkedin.com/learning/spss-for-academic-research/

In-text citation:

(Patel, 2017)

Patel (2017)

Live Performances

 

Do not write references for live theatre, dance or music performances, as these cannot be retrieved. Instead give any relevant details in the text of your essay or assignment.

There is one exception to this rule. At Salford, we ask that Performance students, in the  Salford School of Arts, Media and Creative Technology, do reference live performances.

Maps

Format:

Cartographer, A. B. or Organisation. (Year). Title [Map]. http://... (if online)

Note: if you have created the map yourself with Digimap, etc. give it a title in square brackets.

Examples:

Colomb, J. C. R. (1886). Imperial Federation, map of the world showing the extent of the British Empire in 1886 [Map]. https://www.flickr.com/photos/normanbleventhalmapcenter/2710800068/

Ordnance Survey. (2021). [Windgate Edge. Map]. http://edina.ac.uk/digimap/ 

In-text citation:

(Ordnance Survey, 2021)

Ordnance Survey (2021)

Market Research

Market Research

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title. http://...

Example:

Mintel. (2020). Domestic Tourism: Inc. Impact of Covid-19 UK, December 2020. https://reports.mintel.com/display/989990/

In-text citation:

(Mintel, 2020)

Mintel (2020)

Music recordings

Format:

Artist, A. B. and/or Band/Orchestra. (Year). Title [Type of recording]. Recording Company. URL if only available online

Examples:

Bartok, В. I., Reiner, F., & Chicago Symphony Orchestra. (2004). Concerto for orchestra: music for strings, percussion and celesta; Hungarian sketches [Album]. BMG Classics.

Huata, T. (2021). Tihei Mauri Ora [Song]. Te Rerenga: The Journey. https://open.spotify.com/album/1WdFMOj7hMWymn5B6QJzTl

In-text citation:

(Bartok et al., 2004)

Bartok et al. (2004)

Music scores

Format:

Composer, A.B. (Year). Title [Type of score]. Publisher. (Original date of publication – for older works only).

Examples:

Bach, J. S. (2013). Mass in B minor [Full score]. Dover. (Original work published 1749).

Barrios, A. (1957). Preludio (op. 5, no. 1) para guitarra [Guitar score]. Ricordi Americana.

In-text citation:

(Bach, 1749/2013)

Bach (1749/2013)

Newspaper articles (print)

Format:

Journalist, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of article. Newspaper Title. p. page number.

Example:

Glenny, M. (2011, 16 May). Cyber-weaponry, virtual battlefields and the changing face of global warfare. The Guardian, p. 22.

In-text citation:

(Glenny, 2011)

Glenny (2011)

Newspaper articles (electronic)

Format:

Journalist, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of article. Newspaper Title. http://...

Example:

Halliday, J. (2021, 10 January). Victorian bathhouse uncovered beneath Manchester car park. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2021/jan/10/victorian-mayfield-bathhouse-uncovered-archaeologist-beneath-manchester-car-park

In-text citation:

(Halliday, 2021)

Halliday (2021)

Newspaper articles (no author)

Format:

Title of article. (Year, Day Month). Newspaper Title. p. page number. (or http://...)

Example:

Covid and the climate: the world is failing to fix both. (2020, 20 September). The Independent.

http://www.independent.co.uk/

In-text citation:

(“Covid and the climate: the world is failing to fix both”, 2020)

“Covid and the climate: the world is failing to fix both” (2020)

Patents (electronic)

Format:

Inventor, A. B. (Year). Title of patent (Patent number) Patent Office. http://...

Example:

Deane, G. T. (2021). Method of controlling a surgical robot (GB2588829). United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office. https://www.ipo.gov.uk/p-ipsum/Case/PublicationNumber/GB2588829

In-text citation:

(Deane, 2021)

Deane (2021)

Personal correspondence

Email, letters and other personal communications are not included in your Reference List as the information in them is not retrievable. You should refer to them in the body of your text only, for example, (R. Jones, personal communication, 7 July 2021).

Plays

If you are discussing a live performance (either commenting on the acting, staging or anything else) see the guidance for Live Performances.

If you have seen the play performed by watching a video, TV programme or film, or listening to a radio broadcast, reference it using the relevant guidance for these formats.

If you have used a published play script, reference it using the format for a printed book. If the script was published electronically, reference it as an e-book, website, or webpage, as appropriate.

Podcasts

Format:

Host (Host). (Year, date of original broadcast). Title (Episode number – if applicable) [Format]. In Series - if applicable. Podcast Site. http://...

Example:

Hussain, R. (Host). (2021, 14 June). Refugee Week 2021 : Brisilda Lleshi (No. 1) [Audio podcast episode]. In Salford Speaks. SoundCloud. https://soundcloud.com/universityofsalford/refugee-week-2021-brisilda-lleshi

In-text citation:

(Hussain, 2021)

Hussain (2021)

Radio Broadcast

Format:

Announcer, A. B. (Year, date of broadcast). Title [Radio broadcast]. Site. http://... (if online).

Examples:

Nester, E. (2021, 2 August). Racism in the UK - how do I talk to my kids about it? [Radio broadcast]. BBC. https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/p09qmtt1

In-text citation:

(Nester, 2021)

Nester (2021)

Reports and government publications (print)

Format:

Author, A. B. or Department. (Year). Title (Report number if available). Publisher (if different to author).

Example:

House of Commons. (2006). Eliminating world poverty: making governance work for the poor: a White Paper on international development. Stationery Office.

In-text citation:

(House of Commons, 2006)

House of Commons (2006)

Reports and government publications (electronic)

Format:

Author, A. B. or Department. (Year).  Title (Report number if available). Publisher (if different to author). http://...

Example:

Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government. (2019). Government response to the Housing, Communities and Local Government Select Committee report 'Building regulations and fire safety: consultation response and connected issues' (CP 184). https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/building-regulations-and-fire-safety-government-response-to-the-select-committee-report

In-text citation:

(Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government, 2019)

Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government (2019)

Standards (print)

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of standard (Standard number). Publisher, if different to Organisation.

Examples:

British Standards Institution. (2005). Acoustics: guidelines for noise control in offices and workrooms by means of acoustical screens (BS EN ISO; 17624:2004).

International Organization for Standardization. (2021). Aerospace : Couplings, threaded and sealed, for fluid systems : Dimensions (BS ISO 7320:2021). British Standards Institution.

In-text citation:

(British Standards Institution, 2005)

British Standards Institution (2005)

Standards (electronic)

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of standard (Standard number).  Publisher (if different to Organisation). http://... (if the URL will resolve – see note below).

Examples:

British Standards Institution. (2013). Playing field equipment. Football goals. Functional and safety requirements, test methods (BS EN 748:2013+A1:2018)

International Organization for Standardization. (2015). Quality management systems : Fundamentals and vocabulary (ISO 9000:2015). https://www.iso.org/standard/45481.html

Note: if the URL for the standard contains the words salford.idm.oclc (e.g. https://bsol-bsigroup-com.salford.idm.oclc.org/) do not use it as it may not open for your reader.

In-text citation:

(British Standards Institution, 2013)

British Standards Institution (2013)

Statutes (Acts of Parliament)

Format:

Title and Year of Act chapter or section number if applicable.

Examples:

Climate Change Act 2008

Football (Disorder) Act 2000 c. 25

In-text citation:

Climate Change Act 2008

Statutory Instruments

Format:

Title and Year of Act SI number.

Example:

Construction Contracts (England) Exclusion Order 2011 SI 2011/2332

In-text citation:

Construction Contracts (England) Exclusion Order 2011

Theses (print)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of thesis [Unpublished award thesis]. Name of University.

Example:

Ahmed, M. E. H. (2009). Lexical, cultural and grammatical translation problems encountered by senior Palestinian EFL learners at the Islamic University of Gaza, Palestine [Unpublished PhD thesis]. University of Salford.

In-text citation:

(Ahmed, 2009)

Ahmed (2009)

Theses (electronic)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of thesis (Publication number if available) [Award thesis, Name of University]. Name of Repository or Database. http://... (if the URL will resolve – see note below)

Example:

Alam, B. (2020). Improving the Regulatory Framework of Floodplain Development and Management in the United Kingdom (Publication No. 28447588) [PhD thesis, University of Salford]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Aljuboori, A. S. (2017). A new strategy for case-based reasoning retrieval using classification based on association [PhD thesis, University of Salford].  USIR. http://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/42230/

Note: if the URL for the thesis contains the word  salford.idm.oclc (e.g. https://www-proquest-com.salford.idm.oclc.org) do not use it as it may not open for your reader.

In-text citation:

(Alam, 2020)

Alam (2020)

TikTok video

Format:

Author, A. B. or Organisation [@TikTok handle]. (Year, Day Month). First 20 words of caption [Video]. TikTok. http://...

Example:

University of Salford [@salforduni]. (2021, 23 August). Download the Umii app and find loads of other students with the same interests as you! #CruelSummerConfessions #MyIdoles #salforduni #umii [Video]. TikTok. https://www.tiktok.com/foryou?is_copy_url=1&is_from_webapp=v1&item_id=6995938890615885061#/@salforduni/video/6995938890615885061

In-text citation:

(University of Salford, 2021)

University of Salford (2021)

Translated works (published translation: book)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title. (A. Translator, Trans.). Publisher. (Original work published Year). 

Example:

Galeano, E. H. (1997). Football in sun and shadow (M. Fried, Trans.). Fourth Estate. (Original work published 1995). 

In-text citation:

(Galeano, 1995/1997)

Galeano (1995/1997)

Translated works (your own translation: book)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Original title. [Translated English title]. Publisher.

Example:

Rossfeld, R. (2007). Schweizer Schokolade : industrielle Produktion und kulturelle Konstruktion eines nationalen Symbols 1860 - 1920 [Swiss chocolate manufacturing and cultural construction of a national symbol 1860 - 1920]. Hier Und Jetzt Verlag.

In-text citation:

(Rossfeld, 2007)

Rossfeld (2007)

Translated works (your own translation: journal article)

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Original title of article. [Translated English title]. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example:

Del Río, J. (2011). Algumas memórias do cinema cubano mais polêmico [Some memories of the most controversial Cuban cinema]. Estudos Avancados, 25(72), 145-159.

In-text citation:

(Del Rio, 2011)

Del Rio (2011)

TV - episode from a TV series

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Role). (Year, Day Month). Episode Title (season number, Episode Number) [TV series episode]. In A. B. Executive Producer ( Executive Producer ). Series Title. Production Company.

Examples:

McQueen, S. (Director & Writer), & Siddons, A. (Writer). (2020, 13 December). Education (Season 1, Episode 5) [TV series episode]. In S. McQueen (Executive Producer), Small Axe. BBC.

In-text citation:

(McQueen, 2020)

McQueen (2020)

TV - series

Format:

Producer, A. B. (Executive Producer). (Year-Year). Title [TV series]. Production company. 

Examples:

McQueen, S. (Executive Producer). (2020). Small Axe [TV series]. BBC.

Miller, B., Littlefield, W., Morano, R., Wilson, D., Sears, F., Chaiken, I., Moss, E., Barker, M., Tuchman, E., Chang, Y., Hockin, S., Weber, J., Siracusa, F., & Fortenberry, D. (Executive Producers). (2017-present). The Handmaid's Tale [TV series]. Daniel Wilson Productions; The Littlefield Company; White Oak Pictures; MGM Television.

In-text citation:

(Miller et al., 2017-present)

Miller et al. (2017-present)

TV - single programme

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Role). (Year, Day Month). Title [TV programme]. Production company. 

Examples:

Twaddle, A. (Producer & Director). (2014, 24 March). The Machine Gun and Skye's Band of Brothers [Television programme]. BBC.

In-text citation:

(Twaddle, 2014)

Twaddle (2014)

Twitter

Format:

Author, A. B. or Organisation [@Twitter handle]. (Year, Day Month). First 20 words of tweet [Attachment – if applicable] [Tweet]. Twitter. http://...

Examples:

NHS [@NHSuk]. (2021, 16 August). Even positive change can be anxiety provoking but there are lots of things that can help you manage. As things [Video attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/NHSuk/status/1427224415994060804

Institute of Physics [@PhysicsNews]. (2021, 16 August). As part of the #IOPLimitLess campaign, we asked our members to share their experiences of the stereotypes and barriers they [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/PhysicsNews/status/1427193440719224835

In-text citation:

(Institute of Physics, 2021)

Institute of Physics (2021)

Video Game

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Role). (Year). Title [Video game]. Publisher.

Examples:

Parker, T. & Stone, M. (Writers). (2014) South Park: The Stick of Truth [Video game]. Ubisoft.

In-text citation:

(Parker & Stone, 2014)

Parker and Stone (2014)

Webpage – archived

Most webpages are written by an organisation rather than an individual.

Format:

Organisation or Author, A. B. (Year, Day Month) or (Year, Month). Title of webpage. http://...

Examples:

Barnard, I. (2021, 20 May). Paradise lost: Michael Armitage's layered depictions of Africa. https://artuk.org/discover/stories/paradise-lost-michael-armitages-layered-depictions-of-africa

National Health Service. (2020, 3 January). Student stress. https://www.nhs.uk/mental-health/children-and-young-adults/help-for-teenagers-young-adults-and-students/student-stress-self-help-tips/

In-text citation:

(National Health Service, 2020)

National Health Service (2020)

Webpage - not archived

Most webpages are archived, but some are designed to change over time without archiving. In these cases follow this format.

Format:

Organisation or Author, A. B. (Year). Title of webpage. Retrieved Day Month, Year, from http://...

Example:

Worldometer. (n.d.). World Population Clock. Retrieved 25 March, 2021, from https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/

In-text citation:

(Worldometer, n.d.)

Worldometer (n.d.)

Websites

Do not create references or in-text citations for whole websites. If you need to refer to a website, for example a tool you have used in your work, mention it in the body of your text and include its URL, either in brackets after the name of the website, or by hyperlinking the website’s name.

Examples:

The infographic was created using Venngage (https://venngage.com/)

The infographic was created using Venngage.

Wiki entries

Most wikis do not list authors, so start your reference with the title.

Format:

Title of entry. (Year, Day Month). Title of Wiki entry. In Title of Wiki. http://...

Example:

Drop bear. (2021, 15 May). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drop_bear

In-text citation:

(“Drop Bear”, 2021)

“Drop Bear”, 2021

YouTube and other streamed videos

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of video [Video]. Streaming site. https://...

Examples:

Tran, S. (2021, 13 July). Centuries and Still [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/574675111

University of Salford. (2020, 21 April). New Era: A poem by Professor Jackie Kay CBE [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3gZuy7lOTJg

In-text citation:

(University of Salford, 2020)

University of Salford (2020)

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