OSCOLA referencing for Law students

Scales of Justice Law image

OSCOLA is the referencing style used on law programmes at the University of Salford. It stands for Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities.

When you use information that is not your own words or ideas you need to reference it using the OSCOLA style.

Law students - Learn how to correctly reference different resources using the OSCOLA style by reading our guide and following the examples shown below.

Contact Sue Barker-Mathews library-SBS@salford.ac.uk if you need help citing something not on this list.

Style guides

Introduction to OSCOLA

eLearning screenshot

Learn the basics of referencing using the OSCOLA Style.

Estimated duration is 20 minutes.

 

Referencing examples

Our easy to follow list shows how to reference more than 40 commonly used information sources:

How to reference different information sources

Act of Parliament

Footnote Format:

Short title Year of Act, section(subsection)(paragraph).

Footnote Example:

Human Rights Act 1998 s15(1)(b).

Table of Statutes Format:

Short title Year of Act

Table of Statutes Example:

Human Rights Act 1998

Bill - House of Commons

Footnote Format:

Title HC Bill (session) [number] clause(subpart).

Footnote Example:

Consolidated Fund HC Bill (2008-9) [5] cl 8(2).

Table of Legislation Format:

Title HC Bill (session) [Number]

Table of Legislation Example:

Consolidated Fund HC Bill (2008-9) [5]

 

Bill - House of Lords

Footnote Format:

Title HL Bill (session) Number Clause (subpart).

Footnote Example:

Academies HL Bill (2010-11) 1 cl 5 (3).

Table of Legislation Format:

Title HL Bill (session) Number

Table of Legislation Example:

Academies HL Bill (2010-11) 1

Blog

Footnote Format:

Author, 'Title of blog post' (Blog title, Date of post) Website Address accessed Date of access.

Footnote Example:

Richard Percival, 'Does the UK Supreme Court have enough power?' (UK Supreme Court, 2 December 2016) <http://ukscblog.com/article-50-does-the-uk-supreme-court-have-enough-power> accessed 24 January 2017.

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of blog post' (Blog title, Date of post) Website Address accessed Date of access

Bibliography Example:

Percival R, 'Does the UK Supreme Court have enough power?' (UK Supreme Court, 2 December 2016) <http://ukscblog.com/article-50-does-the-uk-supreme-court-have-enough-power> accessed 24 January 2017

Book or eBook

Footnote Format:

Author, Title of book (Edition publisher year) Page number pinpoint.

Footnote Example:

Timothy Endicott, Administrative Law (1st edn Oxford University Press 2009) 42.

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, Book title (Edition Publisher Year of Publication)

Bibliography Example:

Endicott T, Administrative Law (1st edn Oxford University Press 2009)

Book or eBook - chapter in an edited book

Footnote Format:

Author of chapter, 'Title of chapter' in Editor name(s) (eds), Title of book (Publisher Year of Publication) Page number pinpoint.

Footnote Example:

Francis Rose, 'The Evaluation of the Species' in Andrew Burrows and Alan Rodge (eds), Mapping the Law: Essays in Memory of Peter Birks (Oxford University Press 2006) 102.

Bibliography Format:

Surname of author of chapter Initial, 'Title of chapter' in Editor name(s) (eds), Title of book (Publisher Year of Publication)

Bibliography Example:

Rose F, 'The Evaluation of the Species' in Andrew Burrows and Alan Rodge (eds), Mapping the Law: Essays in Memory of Peter Birks (Oxford University Press 2006)

Book or eBook - secondary citation

It is best academic practice to consult the original information source. If it is not possible to find the original source, cite the source as cited in the secondary source then in brackets put ‘as cited in’ then cite the secondary source including the page number. For example:

Footnote Format:

Author, Title (Publisher Year of Publication) Page number (as cited in Author, Title (Publisher Year of publication) Page number pinpoint).

Footnote Example:

WL Clay, The Prison Chaplain: A Memoir of the Reverend John Clay (London 1861) 554 (as cited in M Wiener, Reconstructing the Criminal Culture, Law and Policy in England 1830–1914 (Cambridge University Press 1990) 79).

Bibliography Format:

Author, Title (Publisher Year of Publication) (as cited in Author, Title (Publisher Year of publication))

Bibliography Example:

Clay, WL. The Prison Chaplain: A Memoir of the Reverend John Clay (London 1861) (as cited in M Wiener, Reconstructing the Criminal Culture, Law and Policy in England 1830–1914 (Cambridge University Press 1990))

Case - law report with neutral citation (all reported UK cases post 2001)

Footnote Format:

Case name [Year of neutral citation] Court Case number, [Year law report published] OR (Year case heard) Volume (if applicable) Law report series abbreviation First page of case, page number pinpoint [or paragraph number pinpoint].

Footnote Example:

Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884, 882.

Footnote example if you have already given the case name in your work:

[2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884, 886.

Table of Cases Format:

Case name [Year of neutral citation] Court Case number, [Year law report published] OR (year case heard) Volume (if applicable) Law report series abbreviation First page of case

Table of Cases Example:

Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884

Case - law report with no neutral citation (all reported UK cases pre 2001)

Footnote Format:

Case name [Year] or (Year) Volume if applicable Law report series abbreviation First page of case, Page number pinpoint [or paragraph number pinpoint].

Footnote Example:

Page v Smith [1996] AC 155, 157.

Footnote example if you have already given the case name in your work:

[1996] AC 155 (HL) 157.

Table of Cases Format:

Case name [Year] or (Year) Volume if applicable Law report Series abbreviation First page of case

Table of Cases Example:

Page v Smith [1996] AC 155

Case - with neutral citation only - unreported

Footnote Format:

Case name [Year] Court Case number [paragraph pinpoint].

Footnote Example:

FirstGroup Plc v Paulley [2017] UKSC 4 [7].

Footnote example if you have already given the case name in your work:

[2017] UKSC 4 [7].

Table of Cases Format:

Case name [Year] Court Case number

Table of Cases Example:

FirstGroup Plc v Paulley [2017] UKSC 4

Case with neutral citation only – reported

Where a judgement has been reported, give the neutral citation followed by a citation of the best law report, separated by a comma. Some law reports have more authority than others – the most authoritative are known as “The Law reports” and have subtitles such as “Queen’s Bench” and “Appeal cases”. Page 17 of OSCOLA (4th ed.) provides a ranking of preference of law reports to use when citing cases of this kind.

Footnote format:

Case name [Year] Court Case number, [year] OR (year) Volume Report abbreviation First page.

Footnote example:

Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884.

Footnote example if you have already given the case name in your work:

[2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884.

Table of Cases format:

Case name [Year] Court Case number, [year] OR (year) Volume Report abbreviation First page

Table of Cases example:

Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884

Case - unreported (Criminal cases)

Footnote format:

Case name (Court name, date of judgment).

Footnote example:

R v Barker (Manchester Magistrates Court, 5 December 2019).

Footnote example if you have already given the case name in your work:

(Manchester Magistrates Court, 5 December 2019).

Table of Cases format:

Case name (Court name, date of judgment)

Table of Cases example:

R v Barker (Manchester Magistrates Court, 5 December 2019)

Case - unreported (Civil cases)

Footnote format:

Case name (Court name, date of judgment).

Footnote example:

Patman v Barker (Manchester County Court, 6 December 2019).

Footnote example if you have already given the case name in your work:

(Manchester County Court, 6 December 2019).

Table of Cases format:

Case name (Court name, date of judgment)

Tables of Cases example:

Patman v Barker (Manchester County Court, 6 December 2019)

Case pre-1865

Footnote format:

Case name (year) volume Nominate Report abbreviation first page, pinpoint to page; volume English Report abbreviation first page, pinpoint to page.

Footnote example:
Boulton v Jones (1857) 2 H&N 564, 566; 157 ER 232, 233.

Footnote example if you have already given the case name in your work:

(1857) 2 H&N 564, 566; 157 ER 232, 233.

Table of Cases format:

Case name (year) volume Nominate report abbreviation first page, volume English Report abbreviation first page

Table of Cases example:
Boulton v Jones (1857) 2 H&N 564, 157 ER 232

Case - from non-UK jurisdictions

Footnote Format:

Cite primary sources (cases and legislation) as in their home jurisdiction, with the exception that full stops in abbreviations should be removed.

Bibliography Format:

Cite primary sources (cases and legislation) as in their home jurisdiction, with the exception that full stops in abbreviations should be removed

Civil Procedure Rule - Practice Direction

Footnote Format:

Practice Direction Number PD Part referencing.

Footnote Example:

2C PD 6.1.

Table of Statutory Instruments Format:

Practice Direction Number PD

Table of Statutory Instruments Example:

2C PD

Command Paper

Command papers include White and Green papers, government responses to select committee reports, and reports of committees of inquiry.

Footnote Format:

Government department, Title of Command Paper (Cm Number of paper, Year of paper) Page number pinpoint.

Footnote Examples:

Department of Health, Choosing health. Making healthy choices easier (Cm 6374, 2004) 92.

Lord Chancellor, Secretary of State for Justice and Secretary of State for Health, Valuing Every Voice, Respecting Every Right: Making the Case for the Mental Capacity Act (The Government’s Response to the House of Lords Select Committee Report on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 CM 8884, 2014).

Bibliography Format:

Government department, Title of Command Paper (Cm Number of paper, Year of paper)

Bibliography Examples:

Department of Health, Choosing health. Making healthy choices easier (Cm 6374, 2004)

Lord Chancellor, Secretary of State for Justice and Secretary of State for Health, Valuing Every Voice, Respecting Every Right: Making the Case for the Mental Capacity Act (The Government’s Response to the House of Lords Select Committee Report on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 CM 8884, 2014)

Conference papers – online

Footnote format:

Author(s), 'Title of conference paper' (Title of Conference, Place of Conference, Date of Conference) <web address> date accessed.

Footnote example:

Onuma Yasuaki, ‘The Assumption, Not Invention, of Universality Is the Problem’ (European Society of International Law Annual Conference, Manchester, September 2018) <https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3364047> accessed 27 January 2020.

Bibliography format:

Surname of author(s) Initial, 'Title of conference paper' (Title of Conference, Place of Conference, Date of Conference) <web address> date accessed

Bibliography example:

Yasuaki O, ‘The Assumption, Not Invention, of Universality Is the Problem’ (European Society of International Law Annual Conference, Manchester, September 2018) <https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3364047> accessed 27 January 2020

Conference Paper - print

Footnote Format:

Author(s), 'Title of conference paper' (Title of Conference, Place of Conference, Date of Conference).

Footnote Example:

Ben McFarlane and Donal Nolan, 'Remedying Reliance: The Future Development of Promissory and Proprietary Estoppel in English Law' (Obligations III conference, Brisbane, July 2006).

Bibliography Format:

Surname of author(s) Intial, 'Title of conference paper' (Title of Conference, Place of Conference, Date of Conference)

Bibliography Example:

McFarlane B and Nolan D, 'Remedying Reliance: The Future Development of Promissory and Proprietary Estoppel in English Law' (Obligations III confernece, Brisbane, July 2006)

Dictionary - online

Footnote Format:

'Word searched', Online dictonary title Web address accessed Date accessed.

Footnote Example:

'Contract', OED Online <http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/40330> accessed 24 January 2017.

Bibliography Format:

Online dictionary name Web address accessed Date accessed

Bibliography Example:

OED Online <http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/40330> accessed 24 January 2017

Dictionary - print (including Westlaw)

Footnote Format:

'Word looked up', Title of dictionary (Dictionary edition Publisher Year of Publication).

Footnote Example:

'Jury', Stroud's Judicial Dictionary (8th edn Sweet & Maxwell 2014).

Bibliography Format:

Dictionary name (Edition Publisher Year of publication)

Bibliography Example:

Stroud's Judicial Dictionary 8th edn Sweet & Maxwell 2014)

Encyclopaedias

Footnote format:

Encyclopaedia title (edition year) pinpoint to volume, pinpoint to paragraph.

Footnote example:

Halsbury’s Laws(5th edn 2010) vol 57, para 53.

Bibliography format:

Encyclopaedia title (edition year)

Bibliography example:

Halsbury’s Laws (5th edn, 2010)

Encyclopaedia segment with author

Footnote format:

Author, ‘Segment title’, Encyclopaedia title (year) pinpoint to page.

Footnote example:

CJ Friedrich, ‘Constitutions and Constitutionalism’, International Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences III (1968) 319.

Bibliography format:

Author surname Initial, ‘Segment title’, Encyclopaedia title (year)

Bibliography example:

Friedrich CJ, ‘Constitutions and Constitutionalism’, International Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences III (1968)

EU Case

Footnote Format:

Case number Case name [Year] Report abbreviation First page, Page number pinpoint.

Footnote Example:

Case 240/83 Procureur de la Republique v ADBHU [1985] ECR 531, 545.

Table of Cases Format:

Case number Case name [Year] Report abbreviation First page

Table of Cases Example:

Case 240/83 Procureur de la Republique v ADBHU [1985] ECR 531

EU Regulations, Directives, Decision, Recommendations and Opinions

EU Regulations, Directives, Decision, Recommendations and Opinions all follow the same format.

Footnote format:

Council Regulation Number Title [Year] OJ L Issue/First page, Article number referencing.

Footnote example:

Council Regulation 1984/2003 of 8 April 2003 introducing a system for the statistical monitoring of trade in bluefin tuna, swordfish and bigeye tuna within the Community [2003] OJ L295/1, Art 7.

Table of Legislation format:

Council Regulation Number Title [Year] OJ L Issue/First page

Table of Legislation example:

Council Regulation 1984/2003 of 8 April 2003 introducing a system for the statistical monitoring of trade in bluefin tuna, swordfish and bigeye tuna within the Community [2003] OJ L295/1

 

EU Treaty or Protocol

Footnote Format:

Legislation title [Year] OJ series Issue/First page, Article number referencing [paragraph number pinpoint].

Footnote Example:

Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union [2008] OJ C115/13, art 4 [2].

Table of Legislation Format:

Legislation title [Year] OJ series Issue/first page

Table of Legislation Example:

Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union [2008] OJ C115/13

European Commission Document

Footnote Format:

Commission, 'Title' Com (Year) Number, Page number pinpoint.

Footnote Example:

Commission, 'The Introduction of Third Generation Mobile Communications in the European Union: State of Play and the Way Forward' Com (2001) 141 Final, 11.

Bibliography Format:

Commission, 'Title' Com (Year) Number

Bibliography Example:

Commission, 'The Introduction of Third Generation Mobile Communications in the European Union: State of Play and the Way Forward' Com (2001) 141 Final

European Court of Human Rights Judgement

Footnote Format:

Case name (Year) Volume European Human Rights Reports abbreviation First page of case, Page number pinpoint.

Footnote Example:

Omojudi v UK (2010) 51 EHRR 10,15.

Table of Cases Format:

Case name (Year) Volume European Human Rights Reports abbreviation First page of case

Table of Cases Example:

Omojudi v UK (2010) 51 EHRR 10

EU case - opinion of the Advocat General

Footnote Format:

EU case citation, Opinion of AG Name, paragraph number pinpoint.

Footnote Example:

Case 240/83 Procureur de la Republique v ADBHU [1985] ECR 531, Opinion of AG Lenz , para 2.4.

Table of Cases Format:

EU case citation, Opinion of AG Name

Table of Cases Example:

Case 240/83 Procureur de la Republique v ADBHU [1985] ECR 531, Opinion of AG Lenz

Government Report

Footnote Format:

Name of Committee, Title of the report (House Session, Paper number) Paragaraph pinpoint.

Footnote Example:

Health Committee, Winter pressure in accident and emergency departments: third report (HC 2016-17, 277) para 109.

Bibliography Format:

Name of Committee, Title of the report (House Session, Paper number)

Bibliography Example:

Health Committee, Winter pressure in accident and emergency departments: third report (HC 2016/17, 277)

Hansard and Parliamentary Debate

Hansard reports debates on the floor of the House of Commons (HC Deb) and House of Lords (HL Deb). In your bibliography list debates in order – starting with the oldest.

Footnote Format:

HL Deb or HC Deb date, Volume, Column.

Footnote Example:

HC Deb 3 February 1977, vol 389, cols 973-76.

Bibliography Format:

HL Deb or HC Deb date, Volume, Column

Bibliography Example:

HC Deb 3 February 1977, vol 389, cols 973-76

Hansard and Parliamentary Debates - written answer

Written answers are cited as the debates with the inclusion of ‘W’ after the column for written answers from the House of Commons and ‘WA’ for written answers from the House of Lords.

Footnote Format:

HC Deb date, Volume, Column number W.

HL Deb Date, Volume, Column WA number.

Footnote Example:

HC Deb 4 July 1996, vol 280, col 505W.

HL Deb 21 Ki;u 2005, vol 673, col WA261.

Bibliography Format:

HC Deb date, Volume, Column number W

HL Deb Date, Volume, Column WA number

Bibliography Example:

HC Deb 4 July 1996, vol 280, col 505W

HL Deb 21 Ki;u 2005, vol 673, col WA261

Journal Article - found online via a general web search

If a journal is only available online, you should include the URL.  Online journals are unlikely to have page numbers and will not always have volume and issue numbers.

Use square brackets if there is no volume number or round brackets if there is a separate volume number.

Footnote Format:

Author, 'Title of article' [Year] OR (Year) Volume number (Issue number if applicable) Journal name or abbreviation Web address accessed Date accessed.

Footnote Example:

Graham Greenleaf, 'The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information' (2010) 1(1) EJLT <http://ejlt.org/article/view/17> accessed 27 July 2010.

Bibliography Format:

Author, surname Initial, 'Title of article' [Year] OR (Year) Volume number (Issue number if applicable) Journal name or abbreviation Web address accessed Date accessed

Bibliography Example:

Greenleaf G, 'The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information'(2010) 1(1) EJLT <http://ejlt.org/article/view/17> accessed 27 July 2010

Journal Articles - print or accessed online via Library Search, Westlaw or LexisLibrary

Footnote Format:

Author, 'Title of article' (Year of publication) Volume number (Issue number if applicable) Journal name or abbreviation First page of article, Page number pinpoint.

Footnote Example:

Alison Young, 'In Defense of Due Deference' (2009) 72 MLR 554, 556.

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of article' (Year of publication) Volume number (Issue number if applicable) Journal name or abbreviation First page of article

Bibliography Example:

Young A, 'In Defense of Due Deference' (2009) 72 MLR 554

Law Commission Report

Footnote Format:

Law Commission, Title of report (Law Com Number of report, Year of report) Paragraph(s) number(s) pinpoint.

Footnote Example:

Law Commission, Reforming Bribery (Law Com No 313, 2008) paras 3.12-3.17.

Bibliography Format:

Law Commission, Title of report (Law Com Number of report, Year of report)

Bibliography Example:

Law Commission, Reforming Bribery (Law Com No 313, 2008)

Lecture Notes

As good academic practice it is recommended that you do not reference your lecture slides in assignments. The best academic practice is to locate the information required in a textbook or journal article and reference this appropriately.

Legislation - from non-UK jurisdiction

Footnote Format:

Cite primary sources (cases and legislation) as in their home jurisdiction, with the exception that full stops in abbreviations should be removed.

Bibliography Format:

Cite primary sources (cases and legislation) as in their home jurisdiction, with the exception that full stops in abbreviations should be removed

Newspaper Article - online

Footnote Format:

Author of article, 'Title of article' Newspaper title (Place of publication, Date of publication) Web address of article accessed Date accessed.

Footnote Example:

Owen Bowcott, 'Disability groups hail court's support for wheelchair user on bus' The Guardian (London, 18 January 2017) <https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/jan/18/court-backs-wheelchair-user-who-was-stopped-from-boarding-bus-yorkshire-leeds> accessed 25 January 2017.

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of article' Newspaper title (Place of publication, Date of publication) Web address of article accessed Date accessed

Bibliography Example:

Bowcott O, 'Disability groups hail court's support for wheelchair user on bus' The Guardian (London, 18 January 2017) <https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/jan/18/court-backs-wheelchair-user-who-was-stopped-from-boarding-bus-yorkshire-leeds> accessed 25 January 2017

Newspaper Article - print or via Library Search

Footnote Format:

Author of article, 'Title of article' Newspaper title (Place of publication, Date of publication) Page number of article.

Footnote Example:

Jane Croft, 'Supreme Court Warns on Quality' Financial Times (London ,1 July 2010) 3.

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of article' Newspaper title (Place of publication, Date of publication)

Bibliography Example:

Croft J, 'Supreme Court Warns on Quality' Financial Times (London, 1 July 2010) 3

EU case - opinion of the Advocat General

Footnote Format:

EU case citation, Opinion of AG Name, paragraph number referencing

Footnote Example:

Case 240/83 Procureur de la Republique v ADBHU [1985] ECR 531, Opinion of AG Lenz , para 2.4

Bibliography Format:

EU case citation, Opinion of AG Name

Bibliography Example:

Case 240/83 Procureur de la Republique v ADBHU [1985] ECR 531, Opinion of AG Lenz

Podcast

Footnote format:

Author, ‘Title’ (publication date) <web address> accessed Date accessed.

Footnote example:

British Medical Journal podcast, 'Insanity in the Dock' (20 July 2012) <http://www.bmj.com/podcast/2012/07/20/insanity-dock> accessed 15 April 2014.

Bibliography format:

Author, ‘Title’ (publication date) <web address> accessed Date accessed

Bibliography Example:

British Medical Journal podcast, 'Insanity in the Dock' (20 July 2012) <http://www.bmj.com/podcast/2012/07/20/insanity-dock> accessed 15 April 2014

Radio programme

Footnote format:

Name of presenter if available, ‘Title’ (Radio station, broadcast date) <web address> accessed Date accessed if available online.

Footnote example:

Joshua Rozenberg, ‘Law in Action’ (Radio 4, 8 Mar 2018) <https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b09tds71> accessed 06 December 2019.

Bibliography format:

Author surname Initial if available, ‘Title’ Radio station, broadcast date) <web address> accessed Date accessed if available online

Bibliography example:

Rozenberg J, ‘Law in Action’ (Radio 4, 8 Mar 2018) <https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b09tds71> accessed 06 December 2019

Statute

Footnote Format:

Short title Year of Act, section(subsection if applicable)(paragraph if applicable).

Footnote Example:

Human Rights Act 1998 s15(1)(b).

Table of Legislation Format:

Short title Year of Act

Table of Legislation Example:

Human Rights Act 1998

Statutory Instrument

Footnote Format:

Title Year, SI number Section(subsection if applicable)(paragraph if applicable).

Footnote Example:

The Consumer Rights (Enforcement and Amendments) Order 2016, SI 2016/1259 s1.

Table of Statutory Instruments Format:

Title Year, SI number

Table of Statutory Instruments Example:

The Consumer Rights (Enforcement and Amendments) Order 2016, SI 2016/1259

Theses

Footnote Format:

Author, Title (Type of thesis, University Year of completion) Page number pinpoint.

Footnote Example:

Javan Herberg, 'Injunctive Relief for Wrongful Termination of Employmnet' (DPhil thesis, University of Oxford 1989) 27.

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, Title (Type of thesis, University Year of completion)

Bibliography Example:

Herberg J, 'Injunctive Relief for Wrongful Termination of Employmnet' (DPhil thesis, University of Oxford 1989)

TV programme (part of a series)

Footnote format:

Name of director or presenter if available, ‘Episode title’ in Series title (Publisher, date) <Web address> accessed Date accessed if available online.

Footnote example:

Harry Potter, ‘The Strange Case of the Law’ in Laying Down the Law (BBC4, 02 February 2015) <https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/02A447FC?bcast=114995978> accessed 04 December 2019.

Bibliography format:

Director or presenter surname Initial if available, ‘Episode title’ in Series title (Publisher, date) <Web address> accessed Date accessed if available online

Bibliography example:

Potter H, ‘The Strange Case of the Law’ in Laying Down the Law (BBC4, 02 February 2015) <https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/02A447FC?bcast=114995978> accessed 04 December 2019

TV programme (standalone)

Footnote format:

Name of director or presenter if available, ‘title’ (Publisher, date) <Web address> accessed Date accessed if available online.

Footnote example:

Live Legal Aid Statement’ (BBC Parliament, 05 September 2013) <https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/05B35039?bcast=100932154> accessed 04 December 2019.

Bibliography format:

Director or presenter surname Initial if available, ‘Title’ (publisher, date) <Web address> accessed Date accessed if available online

Bibliography example:

Live Legal Aid Statement’ (BBC Parliament, 05 September 2013) <https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/05B35039?bcast=100932154> accessed 04 December 2019

UN Convention

Footnote Format:

Title of convention (adopted date, entered into force date (if available)) Volume number of United Treaty Series it is published in UNTS page number convention starts on, article pinpoint.

Footnote Example:

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (adopted 23 May 1969, entered into force 27 January 1980) 1115 UNTS 331, art 7.

Table of International Treaties and Conventions Format:

Title of convention (adopted date, entered into force date (if available)) Volume number of United Treaty Series it is published in UNTS page number convention starts on

Table of International Treaties and Conventions Example:

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (adopted 23 May 1969, entered into force 27 January 1980) 1115 UNTS 331

UN Declaration

Footnote and Bibliography Format:

Name of Declaration (adopted date) Resolution number (abbreviation) article pinpoint.

Footnote and Bibliography Example:

Universal Declaration on Human Rights (adopted 10 December 1948) 217 A(III) (UNGA), art 7.

Table of International Treaties and Conventions Format:

Name of Declaration (adopted date) Resolution number (abbreviation)

Table of International Treaties and Conventions Example:

Universal Declaration on Human Rights (adopted 10 December 1948) 217 A(III) (UNGA)

UN General Assembly Resolution

Footnote Format:

UNGA Resolution number (publication date) part or article pinpoint.

Footnote Example:

UNGA Res 3314(XXIX) (14 December 1974) art 3.

Bibliography Format:

UNGA Resolution number (publication date)

Bibliography Example:

UNGA Res 3314(XXIX) (14 December 1974)

Website

Footnote Format:

Author, 'Title of webpage' web address accessed Date accessed.

Footnote Example:

Clive Coleman, 'What is the article 50 case all about?' <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-38183127> accessed 24 January 2017.

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of webpage' Web address accessed Date accessed

Bibliography Example:

Coleman C, 'What is the article 50 case all about?' <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-38183127> accessed 24 January 2017

Westlaw Overview Article

Footnote Format:

Author, 'Title of section' Westlaw Overview Article (updated date) accessed date.

Footnote Example:

Michelle Heeley, 'Double Jeopardy' Westlaw Overview Article (5 December 2013) accessed 23 July 2014.

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of section' Westlaw Overview Article (updated date) accessed date

Bibliography Example:

Heeley M, 'Double Jeopardy' Westlaw Overview article (5 December 2013) accessed 23 July 2014

YouTube

Footnote format:

Author, ‘Title’ (publication date) <web address> accessed Date accessed.

Footnote example:

Douglas Guilfoyle, ‘The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: Origins and Importance’ (14 August 2013) <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SOqz1Yu8tY> accessed 15 April 2014.

Bibliography format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title’ (publication date)' <Web address> accessed Date accessed

Bibliography Example:

Guilfoyle D, ‘The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: Origins and Importance’ (14 August 2013) <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SOqz1Yu8tY> accessed 15 April 2014