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Referencing and Plagiarism



How do I reference and in-text cite?

APA 6th (Harvard) style is the main referencing style in use at the University. Students studying Law subjects will use OSCOLA and if you are studyinhg History you will use Chicago. Guides for each of these can be found on this page.

PhD Students you must use a referencing style that is appropriate to your academic discipline, and the style must be consistent throughout your thesis. Your supervisor will be able to advise you which style you should use. It is recommended that you use EndNote to help with your referencing.

Guides for download

Web-based quick guide

This is the quickest way to find out how to format your references.

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of article. [Weblog]. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Costa, C. (2010, 29 May). Integrating technology into researcher training. [Weblog]. Retrieved from http://knowmansland.com/learningpath/?p=511

Format:

Author, A.B. (Year). Title. (Edition.). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Wood, D., Chynoweth, P., Adshead, J., & Mason, J. (2010). Law and the built environment. London: Wiley-Blackwell.

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of book. (pp.xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

Examples:

Hope, W. (2010). Visions of Italy: the sublime, the postmodern, and the apocalyptic. In G. Harper & J. Rayner (Eds.), Cinema and landscape (pp. 103-116). Bristol: Intellect.

Format:

Party v Party [Year of reporting] Where Reported Abbreviation case number

Example:

Derwent Holdings Ltd v Trafford Borough Council, Tesco Stores Limited, Lancashire County Cricket Club [2011] EWCA Civ 832

Conference proceedings are published in a book or journal and should therefore be treated as book chapter or journal article.

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of conference paper. Paper presented at Name of Conference. doi: 10. ...

Example:

Barresi, S., Meziane, F., Rezgui, Y., & Lima, C. (2005). Architecture to support semantic resources interoperability. Paper presented at the First ACM International Workshop on Interoperability of Heterogeneous Information Systems (IHIS 2005), Bremen, Germany. doi: 10.1145/1096967.1096984

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of conference paper. Paper presented at Name of Conference. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

James, P. (2008). Urban green spaces in the mid 21st century scenarios and trajectories for the future cityscapes - case study of a North European city. Paper presented at the International Conference: Urban Green Spaces: A Key for Sustainable Cities. Retrieved from http://usir.salford.ac.uk/9607

Format:

Title of Entry. (Year). Title of Dictionary. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Triskaidekaphobia. (2015). Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/triskaidekaphobia

Format:

Author. (Year). Title. (Edition.). Retrieved from http://www.somewebsite.co.uk

Examples:

Schiraldi, G. R. (2000). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: a guide to healing, recovery, and growth. doi:10.1036/0071393722

Geraghty, C. (2000). British cinema in the fifties: gender, genre, and the 'new look'. Retrieved from http://www.netlibrary.com

Roaf, S., Crichton, D., & Nicol, F. (2009). Adapting buildings and cities for climate change: a 21st century survival guide (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.dawsonera.com

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of book. (pp.xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://www.somewebsite.co.uk

Examples:

Chippindale, C. (2010). Ambition, deference, discrepancy, consumption: the intellectual background to a post–processual archaeology. In N. Yoffee & A. Sherratt (Eds.), Archaeological theory. (pp. 27-36). doi:10.1017/CBO9780511720277

Gorman, M. J. (2004). The angel and the compass: Athanasius Kircher’s magnetic geography. In P. Findlen (Ed.), Athanasius Kircher: the last man who knew everything (pp. 239-259). Retrieved from http://www.dawsonera.com/

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of book [Description of e-reader] (Chapter x). Retrieved from http://www.somewebsite.co.uk

Example:

Dale, C., & Robinson, N. (2007). Strategic imperatives for tourism SMEs in Europe. In R. Thomas & M. Augustyn (Eds.), Tourism in the new Europe: perspectives on SME policies and practices [Kindle DX version] (Chapter 4). Retrieved from http://www.amazon.co.uk

Format:

Company. (Year). Title. [Description]. Viewed date for transitory material. Place: Producer if applicable.

Example:

The Cooperative (2011). Our revolution. [Billboard]. Viewed 21 March 2011, Chapel Street, Salford.

Salford Museum and Art Gallery (n.d.) Souvenir price list. [Leaflet]. Salford: The Museum.

Eurax Cream. [Packaging]. (n.d.)

Format:

Director, A.B. (Director). (Year). Title. [Format]. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Lewis, M. (Director) (1988). Cane toads: an unnatural history. [Film]. Sydney: Film Australia.

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example:

Cameron, M. (2006). Nesting habitat of the glossy black-cockatoo in central New South Wales. Biological Conservation, 127(4), 402-410.

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi: 10. ...

Example:

Cox, T. (2008). Scraping sounds and disgusting noises. Applied Acoustics, 69(12), 1195-1204. doi: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2007.11.004

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example:

Rosenzweig, M. L., & Winakur, J. (1969). Population ecology of desert rodent communities: habitats and environmental complexity. Ecology, 50(4), 558-572.

Do not write references for live theatre, dance or music performances, as these cannot be retrieved. Instead give any relevant details in the text of your essay or assignment.

There is one exception to this rule. At Salford, we ask that Performance students, in the School of Arts & Media, do reference live performances. See this guide for further information.

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Mintel. (2014). Visitor Attractions: UK: December 2014. Retrieved from http://academic.mintel.com

Format:

Composer, A.B. (Year). Title. [Score]. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Barrios, A. (1957). Preludio (op. 5, no. 1) para guitarra. [Score]. Bueno Aires: Ricordi Americana.

Format:

Journalist, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of article. Newspaper Title. p. page number.

Example:

Glenny, M. (2011, 16 May). Cyber-weaponry, virtual battlefields and the changing face of global warfare. The Guardian, p. 22.

Format:

Journalist, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of article. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Mann, C. (2013, 9 June). Playing with frozen fire: the new fuel tempting the world. The Sunday Times. Retrieved from http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/

Format:

Title of article. (Year, Day Month). Newspaper Title. p. page number. (or Retrieved from http://...)

Example:

Extreme makeover: are humans reshaping Earth? (2011, 17 May). The Independent. Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/

Format:

Producer, A. B. (Producer). (Year). Title. [Format]. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Becker, A. (Producer). (2006) Animator vs. animation. [Multimedia]. Retrieved from http://fc01.deviantart.com/fs13/f/2007/077/2/e/Animator_vs__Animation_by_alanbecker.swf

Format:

Inventor, A. B. (Year). Title of patent. Patent Office No. Patent number.

Example:

Thompson, A. (2009). System for joining double glazing sections of a sloping roof comprising fastening means for linking the adjacent glazing sections together. UK Patent No. GB 2459431(A).

Format:

Inventor, A. B. (Year). Title of patent. Patent Office No. Patent number. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Rossini, D. (2010). Blackout or shading curtain panel, arrangeable within a double glazing unit. World Intellectual Property Organization No. WO2010143145(A1). Retrieved from http://www.espacenet.com

If you are discussing a live performance (either commenting on the acting, staging or anything else) see the guidance for Live Performances.

If you have seen the play performed by watching a video, TV programme or film, or listening to a radio broadcast, reference it using the relevant guidance for these formats.

If you have used a published play script, reference it using the format for a printed book. If the script was published electronically, reference it as an e-book, website, or webpage, as appropriate

Format:

Producer (Producer). (Year, date of original broadcast). Title. [Format]. Series - if applicable. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

BBC World Service (Producer). (2011, 4 February). New mosquito. [Podcast]. Science in Action. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/scia

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Role). ( Year). Title. [Radio Programme]. Place: Publisher.

Examples:

Barm, G. (Producer). (2014). Goths, Moths & Mancs. [Radio programme]. Manchester: FCUMRadio.

Format:

Department. (Year). Title. Place: Publisher.

Example:

House of Commons. (2006). Eliminating world poverty: making governance work for the poor: a White Paper on international development. London: Stationery Office.

Format:

Department. (Year). Title. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Department of Health. (2012). Caring for our future: reforming care and support. Retrieved from http://www.dh.gov.uk/health/files/2012/07/White-Paper-Caring-for-our-future-reforming-care-and-support-PDF-1580K.pdf

Format:

Country. Department. (Year). Title. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. (2006). Eliminating world poverty: making governance work for the poor: a White Paper on international development. London: Stationery Office.

Format:

Country. Department. (Year). Title. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Australia. Department of Health and Ageing. (2012). Evaluation of the consumer-directed care initiative: final report. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/659479336D383B53CA25784F00114B0E/$File/CDC-Eval-Final-Rep.pdf

Format:

Performer, A.B. (Year). Title. [Format]. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Bartok, B. l., Reiner, F., & Chicago Symphony Orchestra. (2004). Concerto for orchestra: music for strings, percussion and celesta; Hungarian sketches. [CD]. New York, NY: BMG Classics.

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of standard. (Standard number). Place: Publisher

Example:

British Standards Institution. (2005). Acoustics: guidelines for noise control in offices and workrooms by means of acoustical screens (BS EN ISO; 17624:2004). London: BSI.

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of standard. (Standard number). Retrieved from http://...

Example:

British Standards Institution. (2005). Football goals: code of practice for their procurement, installation, maintenance, storage and inspection. (BS 8461:2005+A1:2009). Retrieved from https://bsol.bsigroup.com/en/

Format:

Title and Year of Act chapter or section number if applicable.

Examples:

Climate Change Act 2008

Football (Disorder) Act 2000 c. 25

Format:

Title and Year of Act SI number.

Example:

Construction Contracts (England) Exclusion Order 2011 SI 2011/2332

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of thesis. (Unpublished award thesis). Name of University, Place.

Example:

Sarwono, S. J. (2005). The influence of surface diffusion on the acoustics of Javanese gamelan performance hall. (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Salford, Salford.

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of thesis. (Unpublished award thesis). Name of University, Place. Retrieved from http:// ...

Example:

Mogotlhwane, T. (2008). Barriers to successful application of information technology in Botswana. (PhD thesis), University of Salford, Salford. Retrieved from http://usir.salford.ac.uk/1735/

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title. (A. Translator, Trans.). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

Galeano, E. H. (1997). Football in sun and shadow (M. Fried, Trans.). London: Fourth Estate.

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Original title. [Translated English title]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

Rossfeld, R. (2007). Schweizer Schokolade : industrielle Produktion und kulturelle Konstruktion eines nationalen Symbols 1860 - 1920 [Swiss chocolate manufacturing and cultural construction of a national symbol 1860 - 1920]. Baden, CH: Hier Und Jetzt Verlag.

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Original title of article. [Translated English title]. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example:

del Río, J. (2011). Algumas memórias do cinema cubano mais polêmico [Some memories of the most controversial Cuban cinema]. Estudos Avancados, 25(72), 145-159.

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Role). (Year). Title. [Television programme]. Place: Publisher.

Examples:

Twaddle, A. (Producer & Director). (2014). The Machine Gun and Skye's Band of Brothers. [Television programme]. Salford: BBC.

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Role). (Year). Title. Episode Title. [Television series episode]. In A. B. Series Creator (Role). Series Title. Place: Publisher.

Examples:

Liddell, R. (Producer & Director). (2009). How Long Is a Piece of String? [Television series episode]. In A. Cohen (Editor), Horizon. London: BBC.

Format:

Author, A. B. [screen name]. (Year, Day, Month). Tweet in full. [Tweet]. Retrieved from http://...

Examples:

Fry, S. [stephenfry]. (2014, 2nd July). Inspirational science and maths lessons should be at the heart of education. Yes @royalsociety! #V4Education http://ow.ly/yALL0 [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/stephenfry/status/484260200182861827

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Role). ( Year). Title. [Video game]. Place: Publisher.

Examples:

Parker, T. & Stone, M. (Writers). (2014) South Park: The Stick of Truth. [Video game]. Montreuil: Ubisoft.

Most webpages are written by an organisation rather than an individual.

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of single webpage. Retrieved Access Date, Year, from http:// ...

Example:

United States Geological Survey. (2006). National elevation dataset. Retrieved 15 August, 2010, from http://ned.usgs.gov/

Most webpages are written by an organisation rather than an individual.

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of webpage. Retrieved from http:// ...

Example:

International Union for Conservation of Nature. (2010). Species of the day: northern hairy-nosed wombat. Retrieved from http://www.iucnredlist.org/sotdfiles/lasiorhinus-krefftii.pdf

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of Whole Website. Retrieved Access Date, Year, from http://...

Example:

Diabetes UK. (2012). UK Diabetes Resource. Retrieved 4th December, 2012 from http://www.diabetes.co.uk/

Most wikis do not list authors, so start your reference with the title.

Format:

Title of entry. (Year). Title of Wiki. Retrieved Access Date, Year, from http://...

Example:

Tiger quoll. (2011). Wikipedia. Retrieved 17 May 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spotted-tailed_Quoll

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from https://...

Example:

Currie, N. (2012, 20 November). The Golden Ratio : An Engineer's Perspective [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T4zcZ0yyYdg

Guide

Web-based quick guide

This is the quickest way to find out how to format your references.

Footnote Format:

Short title Year of Act, section(subsection)(paragraph)

Footnote Example:

Human Rights Act 1998 s15(1)(b)

Bibliography Format:

Short title Year of Act

Bibliography Example:

Human Rights Act 1998

Footnote Format:

Title HC Bill (session) [number] clause(subpart)

Footnote Example:

Consolidated Fund HC Bill (2008-9) [5] cl 8(2)

Bibliography Format:

Title HC Bill (session) [Number]

Bibliography Example:

Consolidated Fund HC Bill (2008-9) [5]

Footnote Format:

Title HL Bill (session) Number Clause (subpart)

Footnote Example:

Academies HL Bill (2010-11) 1 cl 5 (3)

Bibliography Format:

Title HL Bill (session) Number

Bibliography Example:

Academies HL Bill (2010-11) 1

Footnote Format:

Author, 'Title of blog post' (Blog title, Date of post) Website Address accessed Date of access

Footnote Example:

Richard Percival, 'Does the UK Supreme Court have enough power?' (UK Supreme Court, 2 December 2016) http://ukscblog.com/article-50-does-the-uk-supreme-court-have-enough-power accessed 24 January 2017

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of blog post' (Blog title, Date of post) Website Address accessed Date of access

Bibliography Example:

Percival R, 'Does the UK Supreme Court have enough power?' (UK Supreme Court, 2 December 2016) http://ukscblog.com/article-50-does-the-uk-supreme-court-have-enough-power accessed 24 January 2017

Footnote Format:

Author, Title of book (Edition publisher year) Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Timothy Endicott, Administrative Law (1st edn Oxford University Press 2009) 42

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, Book title (Edition Publisher Year of Publication)

Bibliography Example:

Endicott T, Administrative Law (1st edn Oxford University Press 2009)

Footnote Format:

Author of chapter, 'Title of chapter' in Editor name(s) (eds), Title of book (Publisher Year of Publication) Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Francis Rose, 'The Evaluation of the Species' in Andrew Burrows and Alan Rodge (eds), Mapping the Law: Essays in Memory of Peter Birks (Oxford University Press 2006) 102

Bibliography Format:

Surname of author of chapter Initial, 'Title of chapter' in Editor name(s) (eds), Title of book (Publisher Year of Publication)

Bibliography Example:

Rose F, 'The Evaluation of the Species' in Andrew Burrows and Alan Rodge (eds), Mapping the Law: Essays in Memory of Peter Birks (Oxford University Press 2006)

It is best academic practice to consult the original information source. If it is not possible to find the original source, cite the source as cited in the secondary source then in brackets put ‘as cited in’ then cite the secondary source including the page number. For example:

Footnote Format:

Author, Title (Publisher Year of Publication) Page number (as cited in Author, Title (Publisher Year of publication) Page number referencing)

Footnote Example:

WL Clay, The Prison Chaplain: A Memoir of the Reverend John Clay (London 1861) 554 (as cited in M Wiener, Reconstructing the Criminal Culture, Law and Policy in England 1830–1914 (Cambridge University Press 1990) 79)

Bibliography Format:

Author, Title (Publisher Year of Publication) (as cited in Author, Title (Publisher Year of publication))

Bibliography Example:

Clay, WL. The Prison Chaplain: A Memoir of the Reverend John Clay (London 1861) (as cited in M Wiener, Reconstructing the Criminal Culture, Law and Policy in England 1830–1914 (Cambridge University Press 1990))

Footnote Format:

Case name [Year of neutral citation] Court Case number, [Year law report published] OR (Year case heard) Volume (if applicable) Law report series abbreviation First page of case, page number referencing [or paragraph number referencing]

Footnote Example:

Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884, 882

Bibliography Format:

Case name [Year of neutral citation] Court Case number, [Year law report published] OR (year case heard) Volume (if applicable) Law report series abbreviation First page of case

Bibliography Example:

Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884

Footnote Format:

Case name [Year] or (Year) Volume if applicable Law report series abbreviation First page of case, Page number referencing [or paragraph number referencing]

Footnote Example:

Page v Smith [1996] AC 155, 157

Bibliography Format:

Case name [Year] or (Year) Volume if applicable Law report Sereis abbreviation First page of case

Bibliography Example:

Page v Smith [1996] AC 155

Footnote Format:

Case name [Year] Court Case number [paragraph referencing]

Footnote Example:

FirstGroup Plc v Paulley [2017] UKSC 4 [7]

Bibliography Format:

Case name [Year] Court Case number

Bibliography Example:

FirstGroup Plc v Paulley [2017] UKSC 4

Footnote Format:

Cite primary sources (cases and legislation) as in their home jurisdiction, with the exception that full stops in abbreviations should be removed

Bibliography Format:

Cite primary sources (cases and legislation) as in their home jurisdiction, with the exception that full stops in abbreviations should be removed

Footnote Format:

Practice Direction Number PD Part referencing

Footnote Example:

2C PD 6.1

Bibliography Format:

Practice Direction Number PD

Bibliography Example:

2C PD

Footnote Format:

Government department, Title of Command Paper (Cm Number of paper, Year of paper) Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Department of Health, Choosing health. Making healthy choices easier (Cm 6374, 2004) 92

Bibliography Format:

Government department, Title of Command Paper (Cm Number of paper, Year of paper)

Bibliography Example:

Department of Health, Choosing health. Making healthy choices easier (Cm 6374, 2004)

Footnote Format:

Author(s), 'Title of conference paper' (Title of Conference, Place of Conference, Date of Conference)

Footnote Example:

Ben McFarlane and Donal Nolan, 'Remedying Reliance: The Future Development of Promissory and Proprietary Estoppel in English Law' (Obligations III confernece, Brisbane, July 2006)

Bibliography Format:

Surname of author(s) Intial, 'Title of conference paper' (Title of Conference, Place of Conference, Date of Conference)

Bibliography Example:

McFarlane B and Nolan D, 'Remedying Reliance: The Future Development of Promissory and Proprietary Estoppel in English Law' (Obligations III confernece, Brisbane, July 2006)

Footnote Format:

'Word searched', Online dictonary title Web address accessed Date accessed

Footnote Example:

'Contract', OED Online http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/40330 accessed 24 January 2017

Bibliography Format:

Online dictionary name Web address accessed Date accessed

Bibliography Example:

OED Online http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/40330 accessed 24 January 2017

Footnote Format:

'Word looked up', Title of dictionary (Dictionary edition Publisher Year of Publication)

Footnote Example:

'Jury', Stroud's Judicial Dictionary (8th edn Sweet & Maxwell 2014)

Bibliography Format:

Dictionary name (Edition Publisher Year of publication)

Bibliography Example:

Stroud's Judicial Dictionary 8th edn Sweet & Maxwell 2014)

Footnote Format:

Case number Case name [Year] Report abbreviation First page, Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Case 240/83 Procureur de la Republique v ADBHU [1985] ECR 531, 545

Bibliography Format:

Case number Case name [Year] Report abbreviation First page

Bibliography Example:

Case 240/83 Procureur de la Republique v ADBHU [1985] ECR 531

Footnote Format:

Council Directive Number Title [Year] OJ L Issue/First page, Article referencing

Footnote Example:

Council Directive 2002/60/EC of 27 June 2002 laying down specific provisions for the control of African swine fever and amending Directive 92/ 119/EEC as regards Teschen disease and African swine fever [2002] OJ L192/27, Art 3

Bibliography Format:

Council Directive Number Title [Year] OJ L Issue/First page

Bibliography Example:

Council Directive 2002/60/EC of 27 June 2002 laying down specific provisions for the control of Afircan swine fever and amending Directive 92/119/EEC as regards Teschen disease and African swine feber [2002] OJ L192/27

Footnote Format:

Council Regulation Number Title [Year] OJ L Issue/First page, Article number referencing

Footnote Example:

Council Regulation 1984/2003 of 8 April 2003 introducing a system for the statistical monitoring of trade in bluefin tuna, swordfish and bigeye tuna within the Community [2003] OJ L295/1, Art 7

Bibliography Format:

Council Regulation Number Title [Year] OJ L Issue/First page

Bibliography Example:

Council Regulation 1984/2003 of 8 April 2003 introducting a system for the statistical monitoring of trade in bluefin tuna, swordfish and bigeye tuna within the Community [2003] OJ L295/1

Footnote Format:

Legislation title [Year] OJ series Issue/First page, Article number referencing [paragraph number referencing]

Footnote Example:

Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union [2008] OJ C115/13, art 4 [2]

Bibliography Format:

Legislation title [Year] OJ series Issue/first page

Bibliography Example:

Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union [2008] OJ C115/13

Footnote Format:

Commission, 'Title' Com (Year) Number, Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Commission, 'The Introduction of Third Generation Mobile Communications in the European Union: State of Play and the Way Forward' Com (2001) 141 Final, 11

Bibliography Format:

Commission, 'Title' Com (Year) Number

Bibliography Example:

Commission, 'The Introduction of Third Generation Mobile Communications in the European Union: State of Play and the Way Forward' Com (2001) 141 Final

Footnote Format:

Case name (Year) Volume European Human Rights Reports abbreviation First page of case, Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Omojudi v UK (2010) 51 EHRR 10,15

Bibliography Format:

Case name (Year) Volume European Human Rights Reports abbreviation First page of case

Bibliography Example:

Omojudi v UK (2010) 51 EHRR 10

Footnote Format:

Name of Committee, Title of the report (House Session, Paper number) Paragaraph referencing

Footnote Example:

Health Committee, Winter pressure in accident and emergency departments: third report (HC 2016-17, 277) para 109

Bibliography Format:

Name of Committee, Title of the report (House Session, Paper number)

Bibliography Example:

Health Committee, Winter pressure in accident and emergency departments: third report (HC 2016/17, 277)

Footnote Format:

HL Deb or HC Deb date, Volume, Column

Footnote Example:

HC Deb 3 February 1977, vol 389, cols 973-76

Bibliography Format:

HL Deb or HC Deb date, Volume, Column

Bibliography Example:

HC Deb 3 February 1977, vol 389, cols 973-76

Footnote Format:

HC Deb date, Volume, Column number W

HL Deb Date, Volume, Column WA number

Footnote Example:

HC Deb 4 July 1996, vol 280, col 505W

HL Deb 21 Ki;u 2005, vol 673, col WA261

Bibliography Format:

HC Deb date, Volume, Column number W

HL Deb Date, Volume, Column WA number

Bibliography Example:

HC Deb 4 July 1996, vol 280, col 505W

HL Deb 21 Ki;u 2005, vol 673, col WA261

Footnote Format:

Author, 'Title of article' [Year] OR (Year) Volume number (Issue number if applicable) Journal name or abbreviation Web address accessed Date accessed

Footnote Example:

Graham Greenleaf, 'The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information' (2010) 1(1) EJLT http://ejlt.org/article/view/17 accessed 27 July 2010

Bibliography Format:

Author, surname Initial, 'Title of article' [Year] OR (Year) Volume number (Issue number if applicable) Journal name or abbreviation Web address accessed Date accessed

Bibliography Example:

Greenleaf G, 'The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information'(2010) 1(1) EJLT http://ejlt.org/article/view/17 accessed 27 July 2010

Footnote Format:

Author, 'Title of article' (Year of publication) Volume number (Issue number if applicable) Journal name or abbreviation First page of article, Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Alison Young, 'In Defense of Due Deference' (2009) 72 MLR 554, 556

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of article' (Year of publication) Volume number (Issue number if applicable) Journal name or abbreviation First page of article

Bibliography Example:

Young A, 'In Defense of Due Deference' (2009) 72 MLR 554

Footnote Format:

Law Commission, Title of report (Law Com Number of report, Year of report) Paragraph(s) number(s) referencing

Footnote Example:

Law Commission, Reforming Bribery (Law Com No 313, 2008) paras 3.12-3.17

Bibliography Format:

Law Commission, Title of report (Law Com Number of report, Year of report)

Bibliography Example:

Law Commission, Reforming Bribery (Law Com No 313, 2008)

As good academic practice it is recommended that you do not reference your lecture slides in assignments. The best academic practice is to locate the information required in a textbook or journal article and reference this appropriatly.

Footnote Format:

Cite primary sources (cases and legislation) as in their home jurisdiction, with the exception that full stops in abbreviations should be removed.

Bibliography Format:

Cite primary sources (cases and legislation) as in their home jurisdiction, with the exception that full stops in abbreviations should be removed.

Footnote Format:

Author of article, 'Title of article' Newspaper title (Place of publication, Date of publication) Web address of article accessed Date accessed

Footnote Example:

Owen Bowcott, 'Disability groups hail court's support for wheelchair user on bus' The Guardian (London, 18 January 2017) https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/jan/18/court-backs-wheelchair-user-who-was-stopped-from-boarding-bus-yorkshire-leeds accessed 25 January 2017

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of article' Newspaper title (Place of publication, Date of publication) Web address of article accessed Date accessed

Bibliography Example:

Bowcott O, 'Disability groups hail court's support for wheelchair user on bus' The Guardian (London, 18 January 2017) https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/jan/18/court-backs-wheelchair-user-who-was-stopped-from-boarding-bus-yorkshire-leeds accessed 25 January 2017

Footnote Format:

Author of article, 'Title of article' Newspaper title (Place of publication, Date of publication) Page number of article

Footnote Example:

Jane Croft, 'Supreme Court Warns on Quality' Financial Times (London ,1 July 2010) 3

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of article' Newspaper title (Place of publication, Date of publication)

Bibliography Example:

Croft J, 'Supreme Court Warns on Quality' Financial Times (London, 1 July 2010) 3

Footnote Format:

EU case citation, Opinion of AG Name, paragraph number referencing

Footnote Example:

Case 240/83 Procureur de la Republique v ADBHU [1985] ECR 531, Opinion of AG Lenz , para 2.4

Bibliography Format:

EU case citation, Opinion of AG Name

Bibliography Example:

Case 240/83 Procureur de la Republique v ADBHU [1985] ECR 531, Opinion of AG Lenz

Footnote Format:

Short title Year of Act, section(subsection if applicable)(paragraph if applicable)

Footnote Example:

Human Rights Act 1998 s15(1)(b)

Bibliography Format:

Short title Year of Act

Bibliography Example:

Human Rights Act 1998

Footnote Format:

Title Year, SI number Section(subsection if applicable)(paragraph if applicable)

Footnote Example:

The Consumer Rights (Enforcement and Amendments) Order 2016, SI 2016/1259 s1

Bibliography Format:

Title Year, SI number

Bibliography Example:

The Consumer Rights (Enforcement and Amendments) Order 2016, SI 2016/1259

Footnote Format:

Author, Title (Type of thesis, University Year of completion) Page number referencing

Footnote Example:

Javan Herberg, 'Injunctive Relief for Wrongful Termination of Employmnet' (DPhil thesis, University of Oxford 1989) 27

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, Title (Type of thesis, University Year of completion)

Bibliography Example:

Herberg J, 'Injunctive Relief for Wrongful Termination of Employmnet' (DPhil thesis, University of Oxford 1989)

Footnote Format:

Title of convention (adopted date, entered into force date (if available)) Volume number of United Treaty Series it is published in UNTS page number convention starts on, article referencing

Footnote Example:

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (adopted 23 May 1969, entered into force 27 January 1980) 1115 UNTS 331, art 7

Bibliography Format:

Title of convention (adopted date, entered into force date (if available)) Volume number of United Treaty Series it is published in UNTS page number convention starts on

Bibliography Example:

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (adopted 23 May 1969, entered into force 27 January 1980) 1115 UNTS 331

Footnote and Bibliography Format:

Name of Declaration (adopted date) Resolution number (abbreviation) article referencing

Footnote and Bibliography Example:

Universal Declaration on Human Rights (adopted 10 December 1948) 217 A(III) (UNGA), art 7

Bibliography Format:

Name of Declaration (adopted date) Resolution number (abbreviation)

Bibliography Example:

Universal Declaration on Human Rights (adopted 10 December 1948) 217 A(III) (UNGA)

Footnote Format:

UNGA Resolution number (publication date) part or article referencing

Footnote Example:

UNGA Res 3314(XXIX) (14 December 1974) art 3

Bibliography Format:

UNGA Resolution number (publication date)

Bibliography Example:

UNGA Res 3314(XXIX) (14 December 1974)

Footnote Format:

Author, 'Title of webpage' web address accessed Date accessed

Footnote Example:

Clive Coleman, 'What is the article 50 case all about?' http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-38183127 accessed 24 January 2017

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of webpage' Web address accessed Date accessed

Bibliography Example:

Coleman C, 'What is the article 50 case all about?' http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-38183127 accessed 24 January 2017

Footnote Format:

Author, 'Title of section' Insight (updated date) accessed date

Footnote Example:

Michelle Heeley, 'Double Jeopardy' Insight (5 December 2013) accessed 23 July 2014

Bibliography Format:

Author surname Initial, 'Title of section' Insight (updated date) accessed date

Bibliography Example:

Heeley M, 'Double Jeopardy' Insight (5 December 2013) accessed 23 July 2014

Guide