Skills for Learning

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Referencing

Failure to acknowledge your sources could lead to accusations of plagiarism - a form of academic misconduct for which the penalties can be severe. So, check out the information and resources on this page - they have been developed to take the stress out of referencing.

The only students exempt from this standard are:

  • Law students will continue to use Oxford University Standard for Citation Of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) referencing: see OSCOLA Referencing: A very quick guide
  • Level 6 and returning English postgraduates continue to use MLA. (see your tutors for help) All new English students in 2014/15 to use Harvard APA 6th ed.
  • History students will continue to use Chicago referencing (see your tutors for further help)
  • PhD Students: you must use a referencing style that is appropriate to your academic discipline, and the style must be consistent throughout your thesis. Your supervisor will be able to advise you which style you should use. It is recommended that you use EndNote to help with your referencing.

Web-based quick guide

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of article. [Weblog]. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Costa, C. (2010, 29 May). Integrating technology into researcher training. [Weblog]. Retrieved from http://knowmansland.com/learningpath/?p=511

Format:

Author, A.B. (Year). Title. (Edition.). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Wood, D., Chynoweth, P., Adshead, J., & Mason, J. (2010). Law and the built environment. London: Wiley-Blackwell.

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of book. (pp.xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

Examples:

Hope, W. (2010). Visions of Italy: the sublime, the postmodern, and the apocalyptic. In G. Harper & J. Rayner (Eds.), Cinema and landscape (pp. 103-116). Bristol: Intellect.

Format:

Party v Party [Year of reporting] Where Reported Abbreviation case number

Example:

Derwent Holdings Ltd v Trafford Borough Council, Tesco Stores Limited, Lancashire County Cricket Club [2011] EWCA Civ 832

Conference proceedings are published in a book or journal and should therefore be treated as book chapter or journal article.

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of conference paper. Paper presented at Name of Conference. doi: 10. ...

Example:

Barresi, S., Meziane, F., Rezgui, Y., & Lima, C. (2005). Architecture to support semantic resources interoperability. Paper presented at the First ACM International Workshop on Interoperability of Heterogeneous Information Systems (IHIS 2005), Bremen, Germany. doi: 10.1145/1096967.1096984

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of conference paper. Paper presented at Name of Conference. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

James, P. (2008). Urban green spaces in the mid 21st century scenarios and trajectories for the future cityscapes - case study of a North European city. Paper presented at the International Conference: Urban Green Spaces: A Key for Sustainable Cities. Retrieved from http://usir.salford.ac.uk/9607

Format:

Title of Entry. (Year). Title of Dictionary. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Triskaidekaphobia. (2015). Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/triskaidekaphobia

Format:

Author. (Year). Title. (Edition.). Retrieved from http://www.somewebsite.co.uk

Examples:

Schiraldi, G. R. (2000). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: a guide to healing, recovery, and growth. doi:10.1036/0071393722

Geraghty, C. (2000). British cinema in the fifties: gender, genre, and the 'new look'. Retrieved from http://www.netlibrary.com

Roaf, S., Crichton, D., & Nicol, F. (2009). Adapting buildings and cities for climate change: a 21st century survival guide (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.dawsonera.com

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of book. (pp.xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://www.somewebsite.co.uk

Examples:

Chippindale, C. (2010). Ambition, deference, discrepancy, consumption: the intellectual background to a post–processual archaeology. In N. Yoffee & A. Sherratt (Eds.), Archaeological theory. (pp. 27-36). doi:10.1017/CBO9780511720277

Gorman, M. J. (2004). The angel and the compass: Athanasius Kircher’s magnetic geography. In P. Findlen (Ed.), Athanasius Kircher: the last man who knew everything (pp. 239-259). Retrieved from http://www.dawsonera.com/

Format:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Eds.), Title of book [Description of e-reader] (Chapter x). Retrieved from http://www.somewebsite.co.uk

Example:

Dale, C., & Robinson, N. (2007). Strategic imperatives for tourism SMEs in Europe. In R. Thomas & M. Augustyn (Eds.), Tourism in the new Europe: perspectives on SME policies and practices [Kindle DX version] (Chapter 4). Retrieved from http://www.amazon.co.uk

Format:

Company. (Year). Title. [Description]. Viewed date for transitory material. Place: Producer if applicable.

Example:

The Cooperative (2011). Our revolution. [Billboard]. Viewed 21 March 2011, Chapel Street, Salford.

Salford Museum and Art Gallery (n.d.) Souvenir price list. [Leaflet]. Salford: The Museum.

Eurax Cream. [Packaging]. (n.d.)

Format:

Director, A.B. (Director). (Year). Title. [Format]. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Lewis, M. (Director) (1988). Cane toads: an unnatural history. [Film]. Sydney: Film Australia.

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example:

Cameron, M. (2006). Nesting habitat of the glossy black-cockatoo in central New South Wales. Biological Conservation, 127(4), 402-410.

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi: 10. ...

Example:

Cox, T. (2008). Scraping sounds and disgusting noises. Applied Acoustics, 69(12), 1195-1204. doi: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2007.11.004

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example:

Rosenzweig, M. L., & Winakur, J. (1969). Population ecology of desert rodent communities: habitats and environmental complexity. Ecology, 50(4), 558-572.

Do not write references for live theatre, dance or music performances, as these cannot be retrieved. Instead you should treat them as personal communications and only mention them in your text. See our referencing guide for further detail.

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Mintel. (2014). Visitor Attractions: UK: December 2014. Retrieved from http://academic.mintel.com

Format:

Composer, A.B. (Year). Title. [Score]. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Barrios, A. (1957). Preludio (op. 5, no. 1) para guitarra. [Score]. Bueno Aires: Ricordi Americana.

Format:

Journalist, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of article. Newspaper Title. p. page number.

Example:

Glenny, M. (2011, 16 May). Cyber-weaponry, virtual battlefields and the changing face of global warfare. The Guardian, p. 22.

Format:

Journalist, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of article. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Mann, C. (2013, 9 June). Playing with frozen fire: the new fuel tempting the world. The Sunday Times. Retrieved from http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/

Format:

Title of article. (Year, Day Month). Newspaper Title. p. page number. (or Retrieved from http://...)

Example:

Extreme makeover: are humans reshaping Earth? (2011, 17 May). The Independent. Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/

Format:

Producer, A. B. (Producer). (Year). Title. [Format]. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Becker, A. (Producer). (2006) Animator vs. animation. [Multimedia]. Retrieved from http://fc01.deviantart.com/fs13/f/2007/077/2/e/Animator_vs__Animation_by_alanbecker.swf

Format:

Inventor, A. B. (Year). Title of patent. Patent Office No. Patent number.

Example:

Thompson, A. (2009). System for joining double glazing sections of a sloping roof comprising fastening means for linking the adjacent glazing sections together. UK Patent No. GB 2459431(A).

Format:

Inventor, A. B. (Year). Title of patent. Patent Office No. Patent number. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Rossini, D. (2010). Blackout or shading curtain panel, arrangeable within a double glazing unit. World Intellectual Property Organization No. WO2010143145(A1). Retrieved from http://www.espacenet.com

Format:

Producer (Producer). (Year, date of original broadcast). Title. [Format]. Series - if applicable. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

BBC World Service (Producer). (2011, 4 February). New mosquito. [Podcast]. Science in Action. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/scia

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Role). ( Year). Title. [Radio Programme]. Place: Publisher.

Examples:

Barm, G. (Producer). (2014). Goths, Moths & Mancs. [Radio programme]. Manchester: FCUMRadio.

Format:

Department. (Year). Title. Place: Publisher.

Example:

House of Commons. (2006). Eliminating world poverty: making governance work for the poor: a White Paper on international development. London: Stationery Office.

Format:

Department. (Year). Title. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Department of Health. (2012). Caring for our future: reforming care and support. Retrieved from http://www.dh.gov.uk/health/files/2012/07/White-Paper-Caring-for-our-future-reforming-care-and-support-PDF-1580K.pdf

Format:

Country. Department. (Year). Title. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. (2006). Eliminating world poverty: making governance work for the poor: a White Paper on international development. London: Stationery Office.

Format:

Country. Department. (Year). Title. Retrieved from http://...

Example:

Australia. Department of Health and Ageing. (2012). Evaluation of the consumer-directed care initiative: final report. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/659479336D383B53CA25784F00114B0E/$File/CDC-Eval-Final-Rep.pdf

Format:

Performer, A.B. (Year). Title. [Format]. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Bartok, B. l., Reiner, F., & Chicago Symphony Orchestra. (2004). Concerto for orchestra: music for strings, percussion and celesta; Hungarian sketches. [CD]. New York, NY: BMG Classics.

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of standard. (Standard number). Place: Publisher

Example:

British Standards Institution. (2005). Acoustics: guidelines for noise control in offices and workrooms by means of acoustical screens (BS EN ISO; 17624:2004). London: BSI.

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of standard. (Standard number). Retrieved from http://...

Example:

British Standards Institution. (2005). Football goals: code of practice for their procurement, installation, maintenance, storage and inspection. (BS 8461:2005+A1:2009). Retrieved from https://bsol.bsigroup.com/en/

Format:

Title and Year of Act chapter or section number if applicable.

Examples:

Climate Change Act 2008

Football (Disorder) Act 2000 c. 25

Format:

Title and Year of Act SI number.

Example:

Construction Contracts (England) Exclusion Order 2011 SI 2011/2332

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of thesis. (Unpublished award thesis). Name of University, Place.

Example:

Sarwono, S. J. (2005). The influence of surface diffusion on the acoustics of Javanese gamelan performance hall. (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Salford, Salford.

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title of thesis. (Unpublished award thesis). Name of University, Place. Retrieved from http:// ...

Example:

Mogotlhwane, T. (2008). Barriers to successful application of information technology in Botswana. (PhD thesis), University of Salford, Salford. Retrieved from http://usir.salford.ac.uk/1735/

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Title. (A. Translator, Trans.). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

Galeano, E. H. (1997). Football in sun and shadow (M. Fried, Trans.). London: Fourth Estate.

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Original title. [Translated English title]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

Rossfeld, R. (2007). Schweizer Schokolade : industrielle Produktion und kulturelle Konstruktion eines nationalen Symbols 1860 - 1920 [Swiss chocolate manufacturing and cultural construction of a national symbol 1860 - 1920]. Baden, CH: Hier Und Jetzt Verlag.

Format:

Author, A. B. (Year). Original title of article. [Translated English title]. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example:

del Río, J. (2011). Algumas memórias do cinema cubano mais polêmico [Some memories of the most controversial Cuban cinema]. Estudos Avancados, 25(72), 145-159.

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Role). (Year). Title. [Television programme]. Place: Publisher.

Examples:

Twaddle, A. (Producer & Director). (2014). The Machine Gun and Skye's Band of Brothers. [Television programme]. Salford: BBC.

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Role). (Year). Title. Episode Title. [Television series episode]. In A. B. Series Creator (Role). Series Title. Place: Publisher.

Examples:

Liddell, R. (Producer & Director). (2009). How Long Is a Piece of String? [Television series episode]. In A. Cohen (Editor), Horizon. London: BBC.

Format:

Author, A. B. [screen name]. (Year, Day, Month). Tweet in full. [Tweet]. Retrieved from http://...

Examples:

Fry, S. [stephenfry]. (2014, 2nd July). Inspirational science and maths lessons should be at the heart of education. Yes @royalsociety! #V4Education http://ow.ly/yALL0 [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/stephenfry/status/484260200182861827

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Role). ( Year). Title. [Video game]. Place: Publisher.

Examples:

Parker, T. & Stone, M. (Writers). (2014) South Park: The Stick of Truth. [Video game]. Montreuil: Ubisoft.

Most webpages are written by an organisation rather than an individual.

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of single webpage. Retrieved Access Date, Year, from http:// ...

Example:

United States Geological Survey. (2006). National elevation dataset. Retrieved 15 August, 2010, from http://ned.usgs.gov/

Most webpages are written by an organisation rather than an individual.

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of webpage. Retrieved from http:// ...

Example:

International Union for Conservation of Nature. (2010). Species of the day: northern hairy-nosed wombat. Retrieved from http://www.iucnredlist.org/sotdfiles/lasiorhinus-krefftii.pdf

Format:

Organisation. (Year). Title of Whole Website. Retrieved Access Date, Year, from http://...

Example:

Diabetes UK. (2012). UK Diabetes Resource. Retrieved 4th December, 2012 from http://www.diabetes.co.uk/

Most wikis do not list authors, so start your reference with the title.

Format:

Title of entry. (Year). Title of Wiki. Retrieved Access Date, Year, from http://...

Example:

Tiger quoll. (2011). Wikipedia. Retrieved 17 May 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spotted-tailed_Quoll

Format:

Creator, A. B. (Year, Day Month). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from https://...

Example:

Currie, N. (2012, 20 November). The Golden Ratio : An Engineer's Perspective [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T4zcZ0yyYdg

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Appointments are booked through Advantage by clicking on the date and time you would like.

Please note: your work must be your work so we will not edit or proofread your assignments, but we will help you to improve your writing and provide guidance on how to proofread your own work.

Appointments are booked through Advantage by clicking on the date and time you would like.

Please note: your work must be your work so we will not edit or proofread your assignments, but we will help you to improve your writing and provide guidance on how to proofread your own work.

If there aren't any appropriate appointments listed please contact studyskills@salford.ac.uk