Research support

Accuracy in referencing every piece of literature you use during the course of your research is essential.

There are two major systems of referencing: Numeric, where citations in the body of your text are indicated by numbers; and Author-Date (also known as parenthetical or Harvard), where the in-text citations are in the form of the author & date of the article enclosed in parentheses. Within these two main systems there are many different styles.

  • A PhD thesis is a peer-reviewed document, and therefore you must use the referencing style that is appropriate for your discipline. Your supervisor will be able to advise you which style you should use.
  • Academic journals often have their own referencing style, so before you submit an article for publication you should check which style is required. You can find out what this is by looking at the journal's 'instructions for authors' page, which you will find either within the journal or on the publisher's website.

For more advice about avoiding plagiarism and referencing, see:

Legal Citations

Students in the Salford Law School should use the Oxford Standard for Citation Of Legal Authorities style:

EndNote is a bibliographic management software package which allows you to create your own personal database of references, known as an EndNote 'Library'. EndNote will:

  • Store all the references that you find during your research. They can be entered manually or downloaded from most databases.
  • Store PDF files, pictures, graphs, tables, etc.
  • Allow you to organise the information you find.
  • Work with MS Word to create citations and bibliographies automatically in any output style (including APA, Chicago, MLA, Vancouver, as well as thousands of styles for academic journals).
  • Work with PowerPoint to insert citations and references into your presentations.

EndNote X9 is available on open access PCs and Macs across the University.

You can obtain EndNote X9 for a ‘personal’ University-networked PC or Mac in an office or postgraduate room through Digital IT:

  • Go to the Salford Service Portal
  • Click the Request something link
  • Click Endnote and fill in your details on the form.

Students can install the EndNote software on personal devices:

  • Go to the Salford Service Portal and log in with your network username and password.
  • Click on EndNote so that it is highlighted, then scroll down to the bottom of the screen and click Next.
  • You will be given a link to install EndNote and a product key. Copy the product key.
  • Click the link, then click the link for the version you want – Windows or Mac.
  • Follow the EndNote installation instructions and enter the product key when prompted.

Staff wishing to install EndNote on personal devices can request the software by contacting the Digital IT Service Desk by phone: 0161 295 2444 or email:

EndNote Training

The Academic Support Team run regular training sessions for EndNote as part of the Skills for Learning programme. These are free, but places are limited so you must book on via the Skills for Learning website.

Disseminate your research output to give it maximum visibility and impact.

Information Repository

Placing your work in University of Salford's Institutional Repository (USIR) makes it easy for others to find. For help see Depositing Research Material in (USIR) [pdf].

Journal Citation Reports

This comprehensive resource allows you to evaluate and compare journals using citation data drawn from over 7,500 scholarly and technical journals, which includes virtually all areas of science, technology, and social sciences. Citation and article counts are important indicators of how frequently current researchers are using individual journals.
Journal Citation Reports can show you the most frequently cited journals in a field, the highest impact journals in a field, and the largest journals in a field.
If you are thinking of publishing an article it is a useful tool to help you decide which journals you could submit your paper to, for maximum impact.
To use Journal Citation Reports go to: Once in JCR, see the 'Information for New Users' link for information about using the service.


Bibliometrics is a term used to describe the statistical analysis of the impact of research; bibliometric methods can be used to measure the impact of an academic journal article, the impact of a group of researchers, or the impact of a field of research. Most typically, bibliometrics are used to analyse the number of citations a journal article receives in subsequent articles, thus indicating the impact the original article had on future research in that field.
For more information see Bibliometrics [pdf].

The Library receives a print copy of every Doctoral and Masters by Research thesis, which you can find via Library Search.


We have a collection of full-text Electronic Theses on USIR. This includes both past and present theses written by postgraduate researchers and staff at Salford.
If you are currently undertaking a Doctoral Degree or Masters by Research Degree you will need to submit a copy of your completed thesis to USIR. You should deposit the final, passed version of your thesis, with all corrections included and permission obtained for any 3rd party copyrighted material you might have used. Please see the guide Depositing your eThesis in USIR and the eTheses webpages for advice about what is required.
If you need help putting your thesis in USIR, please contact the Research Support Team.

Finding Theses

See Finding Theses [pdf] for advice about finding theses from the University of Salford, and other universities both in the UK and worldwide.

Writing a thesis

The following titles may be of interest.

Theses in Progress

There is no single listing of theses currently being researched and written, but some useful sites to try are: