Professor David Roberts

Professor of Telepresence

  • Newton Building Room 260
  • T: +44 (0)161 295 2926
  • E: d.j.roberts@salford.ac.uk
  • SEEK: Research profile

Office Times

“Please contact me via email for an appointment”

Biography

I am interested in how the naturalness of mixed reality experience impacts on that of people's ability to think and act naturally. I think of this in terms of managing the fragments of the togetherness of mixed reality. This ranges from being able to catch and hold someone's gaze as you walk past, to feeling comforted by a room where the walls appear to be alive. I am interested in the connections between sensing, moving and thinking and how the way in which technology complicates one, impacts on the other. The majority of my work has been in reproducing the face to face meeting across a distance. I started with avatars, incorporated them into immersive VR CAVEs, then replaced them by virtuality humans that faithfully communicate both attention and appearance. Significant novel contributions to research include: the use prediction to overcome the effects of network delays in collaborative virtual environments; combining natural (wall clock) and causal time management to balance responsiveness with critical consistency; supporting complex non-verbal and shared object interactions at the same time in telepresence; supporting eye gaze through telepresence while people moved around; and faithfully reproducing both attention and appearance through telepresence between moving people. I recently lead an EPSRC project that incorporated eye-tracking into 3D glasses to control avatar eye movements across three connected immersive VR CAVEs. I am now part of an EU project linking immersive VR in Europe's space science centres to “teleport” scientists together to simulations of MARS, informed by the MARS rover robot. I have co-chaired IEEE/ACM Distributed Simulation and Real Time applications for eight years and last year was co-program chair of the Joint Virtual Reality Conference (EEG&ICAT). After 6 years of leading one of the UK's largest VR groups, I am now embarking on a new adventure to explore the connections between my work, cognition and robotics.

Please click on the following link to access more information on my research gate:

www.researchgate.net/profile/David_Roberts15

Teaching

Virtual Reality, Mixed Reality and Multi Modal Interfaces, Telepresence, Populated Virtual Environments, Distributed systems, Internet Systems, Research Methods, Systems Engineering, Object Oriented Thinking, JAVA Projects.

Research Interests

Telepresence, Virtual Reality, Mixed Reality, Virtuality, Video Conferencing, Immersion, Multimodality, cognition, human communication, VR therapy (see bio).

Qualifications and Memberships

BSc Computer Science, Reading

PhD Cybernetics, Reading

Publications

Refereed Journal Articles 16

Roberts, D J, Rae, J, Duckworth, T, Moore C, and Aspin R, Estimating Gaze of a Virtuality Human, to appear EEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics. 04/2013; 19(4). 2.22 Impact Factor, 1st quartile WoS. Expected REF rating 4.

Duckworth T. and Roberts D J, CPU and GPU Parallelisation of the Exact Polyhedral Visual Hull towards high quality commodity video-based reconstruction, Springer Journal of Real-Time Image Processing, Special Issue on Algorithms and Architectures for Real-time Multi- Dimensional Image Processing. 1.02 Impact Factor, 4th quartile WoS. Expected REF rating 3.

Roberts, D J & Marshal, D & Mcloone, S & Delaney, D & Ward, T & Aspin, R 2006, 'Exploring the use of local consistency measures as thresholds for dead reckoning update packet generation', Transactions of Society of Computer Simulation. Impact Factor: 0.793, 4th quartile WoS. Internal REF rating 3.

Limniou, M & Roberts, D J & Papadopolous, N 2008, 'Full immersive virtual environment CAVETM in chemistry education', Computers & Education, 51(2), pp.584-593. 2.62 Impact Factor, 1st quartile WoS. Internal REF rating 3.

Refereed Journal Articles – total 12 published, 1 pending, 2 under review, 3 imminent submission

Murray, N & Roberts, D J & Steed, A & Sharkey, P & Dickerson, P & Rae, J & Wolff, R 2009, 'Eye Gaze in Virtual Environments: Evaluating the need and initial work on implementation', Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, Volume 22, Issue 11, pp. 1437-1449.

Murray, N & Roberts, D J & Steed, A & Sharkey, P & Rae, J & Dickenson, P 2007, 'An assessment of eye gaze potential within immersive virtual environments', ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMCCAP), Volume 3, Issue 4.

Heldal, I & Roberts, D J & Bråthe, L & Wolff, R 2007, 'Presence, Creativity and Collaborative Work in Virtual Environments', Lecture Notes of Computer Science, 4550/2007(Springer), pp.802-811.

Limniou, M & Roberts, D J & Papadopolous, N 2007, 'An integrated lecture, virtual instrumentation lab approach to teaching UV-Vis spectroscopy', Education and Information Technologies, 12(4), pp.229-244.

Roberts, D J & I, H & Otto, O & Wolff, R 2007, 'Factors influencing flow of object focussed collaboration in collaborative virtual environments', Virtual Reality, Springer, 10(2), pp.119-133.

Limniou, M & Roberts, D J & Otto, O 2007, 'The integration of a viscosity simulator in a chemistry laboratory', Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 8(2), pp.220-231. 

Sander, I & Roberts, D J & Smith, C & Otto, O & Wolff, R 2006, 'Impact of method of immersion on the naturalness and impression of balance and reach activities', International Journal on Disability and Human Development (IJDHD).

Roberts, D J & Heldal, I & Otto, O & Wolff, R 2006, 'Factors influencing Flow of Object Focussed Collaboration in Collaborative Virtual Environments', Virtual Reality, Special Issue on Collaborative Virtual Environments for Creative People, Springer London.

Roberts, D J & Wolff, R & Otto, O 2005, 'Supporting a Closely Coupled Task between a Distributed Team: Using Immersive Virtual Reality Technology', Computing and Informatics.

Wolff, R & Roberts, D J & Steed, A & Otto, O 2005, 'A Review of Tele-collaboration Technologies with Respect to Closely Coupled Collaboration', International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology (IJCAT), Special Issue on: Collaborative Multimedia Applications in Technology, Inderscience Publishers.

Wolff, R & Roberts, D J & O, O 2004, 'A study of event traffic during the shared manipulation of objects within collaborative virtual environments', MIT Press Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 13(3), pp.251-262. 

Roberts, D J & Wolff, R & O, O 2003, ' Constructing a Gazebo: Supporting team work in a tightly coupled, distributed task in virtual reality', MIT Press Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments , 12(6), pp.644-667. 

Greuter S., and Roberts, D., Controlling Viewpoint from Markerless Head Tracking in an Immersive Ball Game Using a Commodity Depth Based Camera, Under review Journal of Simulation.

PhD Thesis total 1

Roberts, D J 1995, A Real Time Predictive Architecture for Distributed Virtual Reality, (Thesis towards PhD in Cybernetics), University of Reading, Reading, UK.

Book Chapters – total 2

Roberts, D J & Wolff, R & O., O 2005 'The Impact of Display System and Embodiment on Closely Coupled Collaboration between Remote Users', in: Avatars at Work and Play: Collaboration and Interaction in Shared Virtual Environments, Schroeder, R. & Axelsson, A. (Eds.), Springer, Springer Verlag, New York, USA, pp.131-149. 

Roberts, D J 2003, 'Communication Infrastructures for Inhabited Information Spaces', in: Inhabited Information Systems, D. Snowdon & E. F. Churchill (Eds.),Springer-Verlag, pp.233-267.

Guest Editorships of Journals

Special Issue of Journal total 1

Alexandrov, V & Kranzlmüller, D & Roberts, D J & Volkert, J 200, 'Collaborative and Cooperative Environments ', Journal of Computing and Informatics.

Commissioned reports - total 1

Roberts, D J & Light, B 2010, A Review of Infrastructure Needs for Leading Edge Research in the United Kingdom , (Report commissioned by Research Councils), AHRC/EPSRC, Manchester, UK.

Books – total 1

Warwick, K & Gray, J & Roberts, D J 1993, IEE Virtual Reality in Engineering, (Edited Book), IEE Computing Series, London, UK. 

Papers in Published Conference Proceedings – total 53

Roberts, D J & Wolff, R & Rae, J & Steed, A & Aspin, R & Mcintyre, M & Pena, A & Oyekoya, O & Steptoe, W 2009, 'Communicating Eye-gaze Across a Distance: Comparing an Eye-gaze enabled Immersive Collaborative Virtual Environment, Aligned Video Conferencing, and Being Together', IEEE Virtual Reality 2009. IEEE Virtual Reality 2009 IEEE, Lafayette, USA. Steptoe, W & Okekoya, O & Murgia, A & Wolff, R & Rae, J & Guimaraes, E & Roberts,

W. Steptoe, O. Oyekoya, O., A. Murgia, R. Wolff, J. Rae, E. Guimaraes, D. Roberts, and A. Steed, A 2009, Eye-Tracking for Avatar Eye-Gaze Control during Object-Focused Multiparty Interaction in Immersive Collaborative Virtual Environments, in: 'IEEE VR 2009', IEEE, Lafayette, USA. Conference details: IEEE VR, 2009.

Aspin, R & Roberts, D 2011, A GPU based, projective multi-texturing approach to reconstructing the 3D human form for application in tele-presence, in: 'Proceeding: CSCW '11 Proceedings of the ACM 2011 conference on Computer supported cooperative work', ACM, New York, USA, pp.105-112.  Doi 10.1145/1958824.1958840.

Adi, N & Roberts, D J 2011, The Use of Online Virtual Environments to Assess the Appeal of Interactive Elements within Buildings, in: 'Proceedings of Cyber Worlds CW2011', IEEE, Banff, Canada.

Greuter, S & Roberts, D J 2011, Controlling Viewpoint from Markerless Head Tracking in an Immersive Ball Game Using a Commodity Depth Based Camera, in: 'IEEE/ACM Proceedings of 15th Int. Symp. On Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications', IEEE, Salford, UK, pp.64-71. 

Moore, C & Duckworth, T & Roberts, D J 2011, Investigating the Suitability of a Software Capture Trigger in a 3D Reconstruction System for Telepresence, in: 'IEEE/ACM Proceedings of 15th Int. Symp. On Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications', IEEE, Salford, UK, pp.134-137.

Duckworth, T & Roberts, D J 2011, Camera Image synchronization in Multiple Camera Real-time 3D Reconstruction of Moving Humans, in: 'Proceedings of 15th Int. Symp. On Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications', IEEE, Salford, UK, pp.138-144.

Rae, J P & Roberts, D J 2011, Some Implications of Eye Gaze Behaviour and Perception for the Design of Immersive Telecommunication Systems, in: 'IEEE/ACM Proceedings of 15th Int. Symp. On Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications', IEEE, Salford, UK, pp.120-125.

Murray, N 2011, Contextual Interaction Support in 3D Worlds, in: Roberts, D J & Pullen, M (eds.), '15th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications', CPS: Conference Publishing Services, Salford, UK, pp.58-63. Conference details: 15th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications, Salford Quays, 4-7 September 2011. 

Adi, M N & Roberts, D J 2011, Building Interactivity, is It Appealing?, in: 'IEEE Int Symp VR Innovation VRSI', IEEE, Singapore, pp.337-338. 

Adi, N & Roberts, D J 2011, Using VR to Assess the Impact of Seemingly Life Like and Intelligent Architecture on People’s Ability to Follow Instructions from a Teacher, in: 'IEEE Int Symp VR Innovation VRSI', IEEE, Singapore, pp.25-31. 

Duckworth, T & Roberts, D J 2011, Accelerated Polyhedral Visual Hulls using OpenCL, in: 'IEEE Virtual Reality', IEEE, Singapore, pp.203-204. 

Aspin, R & Roberts, D 2010, An Exploration of Non-tessellated 3D Space Carving for Real-Time 3D Reconstruction of a Person through a Simulated Process, in: 'Visual Media Production (CVMP), 2010 Conference on', IEEE, London, UK, pp.151-160. Conference details: Visual Media Production (CVMP), 2010 Conference on, London. 

Adi, M N & Roberts, D J 2010, Can you help me concentrate room?, in: 'IEEE Virtual Reality', IEEE, Waltham, USA, pp.133-144. 

Moore, C & Duckworth, T & Aspin, R & Roberts, D 2010, Synchronization of Images from Multiple Cameras to Reconstruct a Moving Human, in: 'Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications (DS-RT), 2010 IEEE/ACM 14th International Symposium on', IEEE/ACM, Fairfax, VA, USA, pp.53-60. Conference details: 2010 IEEE/ACM 14th International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications (DS-RT), October 2010. 

Steptoe, W & Okekoya, O & Murgia, A & Wolff, R & Rae, J & Guimaraes, E & Roberts, D J & Steed, A 2009, Eye-Tracking for Avatar Eye-Gaze Control during Object-Focused Multiparty Interaction in Immersive Collaborative Virtual Environments, in: 'IEEE VR 2009', IEEE, Lafayette, USA. Conference details: IEEE VR, 2009..

Murgia, A & Wolff, R & Steptoe, W & Sharkey, P & Roberts, D J & Guimaraes, E 2008, A Tool for Analyzing and Replaying Gaze-Enhanced Collaborative Sessions in CAVE-like Environments, in: '12th IEEE ACM Int. Symp. Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications DSRT, 2008', IEEE, Vancouver, Canada. Conference details: 12th IEEE ACM Int. Symp. Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications DSRT, 2008.

Wolff, R & Roberts, D J & Murgia, A & Murray, N & Rae, J & Steptoe, W & Steed, A & Sharkey, P 2008, Communicating Eye Gaze across a Distance without Routing Participants to the Spot, in: 'Proc. 12th IEEE ACM Int. Symp. Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications', IEEE Computer Society, Vancouver, Canada. Conference details: 12th 2008 IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real-Time Applications. 

Steptoe, W & Wolff, R & Murgia, A & Guimaraes, E & Rae, J & Sharkey, P & Roberts, D J & Steed, A 2008, Eye-Tracking for Avatar Eye-Gaze and Interactional Analysis in Immersive Collaborative Virtual Environments, in: 'Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work', ACM, San Diego, USA, pp.197-200. Conference details: ACM Proc. Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, San Diego, 2008.

Heldal, I & Roberts, D J & Brathe, L & Wolff, R 2007, Creativity and Collaborative Work in Virtual Environments, in: 'HCI, 2007', HCI, Beijing, China. Conference details: HCI, 2007.

Murray, N & Roberts, D J 2006, 'Comparison of head gaze and head and eye gaze within an immersive environment', The 10th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications.

Otto, O & Roberts, D J & Wolff, R 2006, 'A Review on Effective Closely-Coupled Collaboration using Immersive CVE's', ACM SIGGRAPH International Conference on Virtual Reality Continuum and Its Applications VRCIA 2006..

Roberts, D J & Marshal, D & Mcloone, S & Delaney, D & Ward, T & Aspin, R 2005, 'Exploring the use of local consistency measures as thresholds for dead reckoning update packet generation', 9th IEEE ACM Int. Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time. 

Roberts, D J & Ai-Liabi-, M & Otto, O & Wolff, R & Al-Khalifah-, A 2005, 'Reducing Fragmentation in Telecollaboration by Using IPT Interfaces', Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Virtual Environments, presented in 9th Immersive Projection Technology. 

Aspin, R & Roberts, D J 2005, 'A Model for Distributed, Co-Located Interaction in Urban Design/Review Visualisation.', Proceedings of the Ninth IEEE International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real-Time Applications .

Otto, O & Roberts, D J & Wolff, R 2005, 'Analysing Display Influence on a Close Coupled Task based on a Single User Evaluation', 10nth International Telework Academy Conference Preston & Liverpool.

Otto, O & Roberts, D J & Wolff, R 2005, 'A Study of Influential Factors on Effective Closely-Coupled Collaboration based on Single User Perceptions', The 8th International Workshop on Presence.

Steed, A & Roberts, D J & Schroeder, R & Heldal, I 2005, 'Interaction Between Users of Immersion Projection Technology Systems ', 11th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction

Al-Khalifah, A & Roberts, D J & Wolff, R 2005, 'Case Study: Interacting with Volumetric Medical Datasets in Networked CAVE Environments', Int Conf. on Visualization and Data Analysis (SPIE Vol. 5669), Electronic Imaging, California.

Roberts, D J & Ai-Liabi-, M & Otto, O & Wolff, R & Al-Khalifah-, A 2005, 'Reducing Fragmentation in Telecollaboration by Using IPT Interfaces', 9th IPT & 11th EGVE Workshop.

Otto, O & Roberts, D J & Wolff, R 2005, 'A Study of Influential Factors on Effective Closely-Coupled Collaboration based on Single User Perceptions', 8th Annual International Workshop on Presence.

Wolff, R & Roberts, D J & Otto, O 2004, 'Supporting Social Human Communication between distributed walk-in displays', The Eighth IEEE International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications.

Roberts, D J & Wolff, R 2004, 'Controlling Consistency within Collaborative Virtual Environments', The Eighth IEEE International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications.

Roberts, D J & Wolff, R & Otto, O & Kranzlmueller, D & Anthes, C & Steed, A 2004, 'Supporting Social Human Communication between Distributed Walk-in Displays', ACM int. symp. Virtual Reality and Systems Technology VRST. 

Al-Khalifah-, A & Roberts, D J 2004, 'A Survey of Modelling Approaches for Medical Simulator', Int. Conf. Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technology.

Seelig, G & Roberts, D J & Harwin, W & Melder 2004, 'A haptic interface for linked immersive and desktop displays: Maintaining sufficient frame rate for haptic rendering', 17th ICSA Int. Conf. Parallel and Distributed Computer Simulation. 

Roberts, D J & Otto, O & Wolff, R 2004, 'Pushmepullyou: The reality of interaction with shared objects in networked walk-in displays', 17th ICSA Int. Conf. Parallel and Distributed Computer Simulation. 

Roberts, D J & Wolff, R & Otto, O & Kranzlmueller, D & Anthes, C & Steed, A 2004, 'Supporting Social Human Communication between Distributed Walk-in Displays', ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST'04).

Roberts, D J & Wolff, R 2004, 'Controlling Consistency within Collaborative Virtual Environments', 8th IEEE International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real-Time Applications (DS-RT'04).

Wolff, R & Roberts, D J & Otto, O 2004, 'Collaboration around Shared Objects in Immersive Virtual Environments', 8th IEEE International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real-Time Applications (DS-RT'04).

Seelig, M & Harwin, W & Roberts, D J & Otto, O & Wolff, R 2004, 'A Haptic Interface for Linked Immersive and Desktop Displays: Maintaining Sufficient Frame Rate for Haptic Rendering', Proceedings of the ISCA 17th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing Systems (PDCS'04).

Otto, O & Roberts, D J 2003, 'Importance of communication influences on a highly collaborative task', IEEE Int. Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time . 

Webb, G & Norcliffe, A & Cannings, P & Roberts, D J & Sharkey 2003, Virtual Reality and Interactive 3D as effective tools for Medical Training, 11' Int. Conf. Medicine Meets Virtual Reality.

Myjak, M & Lake, T & Roberts, D J 2000, Timing: Mechanisms for Ownership Transfer, in: 'Proc of Simulation Interoperability Standards Organisation SISO Spring Simulation Interoperabity Workshop', Simulation Interoperability Standards Organisation , Orlando, USA. Conference details: Simulation Interoperability Standards Organisation SISO Spring Simulation Interoperabity Workshop.

Roberts, D J & Dautenhahn, K 2000, Social Awareness: Scalable Interaction Between Virtual Characters, in: 'Virtual Worlds and Simulation VWSIM, int. conf. SCS Western Multi-conference', Society of Computer Simulation, San Diego, USA. Conference details: Virtual Worlds and Simulation VWSIM, int. conf. SCS Western Multi-conference.

Worthington, B & Roberts, D J 2000, Encapsulating Network Latency Compensators in VRML, in: 'Proc of Virtual Worlds and Simulation VWSIM, int. conf. SCS Western Multi-conference '00', SCS, New York, USA.

Roberts, D J & Strassner, J & worthington, B 1999, Influence of the supporting protocol on the latencies induced by concurrency control within a large scale multi user virtual reality system, in: 'Proc of Virtual Worlds and Simulation VWSIM, int. conf. SCS Western Multi-conference '00', SCS, San Francisco, USA.

Ryan, M & Sharkey, P & Roberts, D J 1998, A Local Perception Filter for Distributed Virtual Environments, in: 'IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium VRAIS'98', IEEE, Atlanta, USA.

Roberts, D J & Lake, T & Ritchinson, A & Sharkey, P 1998, Optimising Exchange of Attribute Ownership in the DMSO RTI, in: 'proc. Simulation Interoperability Standards Organisation Spring Simulation Interoperabity Workshop, Orlando USA', SISO, Orlando, USA, pp.379-386.

Sharkey, P & Ryan, M & Roberts, D J 1998, Theoretical and Practical Constraints on Shared Virtual Environments due to Latency, in: 'proc. ACM int. conf. Collaborative Virtual Environments', ACM, Nottingham, UK.

Roberts, D J 1997, Minimising the latency induced by consistency control within a large scale multi-user distributed virtual reality system, in: 'proc. IEEE int. conf. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics '97', IEEE, Orlando, USA.

Roberts, D J 1997, Maximising Concurrency and Scalability in a Consistent, Causal, Distributed Virtual Reality System, Whilst Minimising the Effect of Network Delays, in: 'proc of IEEE 6th Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE '97)', IEEE, Boston, USA.

Roberts, D J & Ryan, M & Sharkey, P 1997, Combining Two Techniques for Overcoming Network Delays in a Distributed Virtual Ball Game, in: 'proc of ACM int. conf. Collaborative Virtual Environments', IEEE, Nottingham, UK.

Sandoz, P & Sharkey, P & Roberts, D J 1996, Collision Prediction of a Moving Object Within a Virtual World, in: 'proc. Virtual Reality World', VRW '96, Stuttgart, Germany.

Roberts, D J & Sharkey, P & Sandos, P 1996, A Single-user Perception Filter for Multi-user Collaborative Virtual Environments, in: 'Proc. of Collaborative Virtual Environments ',  Nott. UK.

Roberts, D J 1995, A Real Time Predictive Architecture for Distributed Virtual Reality, in: 'proc. 1st ACM SIGRAPH Conf. Simulation and Interaction in Virtual Environments', ACM, Orlando, USA.

Roberts, D J & Griffin, M 1993, LOKI-2 - An Architecture for Distributed Virtual Reality, in: 'proc. IEE Computer and Control Division Colloquium on Distributed Virtual Reality', IEEE, London, UK.

Roberts, D J & Griffin, M 1992, Distributed Virtual Reality, in: 'Proc of SERC/DTI Symp. on Virtual Reality in Design', SERC/DTI, Coventry, UK.

Published Conference Proceedings – Total 8

Roberts, D J & Pullen, M J & Theodopolous, G & Avis, N 2011, Proceedings of 15th IEEE ACM International Symposium on Distributed Simulation ans Real Time Applications, IEEE, New York, USA.

Roberts, D J & Pullen, M & Cai, W & Saddik, A E 2010, Proceedings of the 14th IEEE ACM International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications, IEEE, New York,

Roberts, D J & Turner, S & Cai, W & Saddik, A E 2009, Proceedings of the 13th IEEE ACM International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications, IEEE, New York, USA.

Roberts, D J & El-Saddik, A & Frescha, A 2008, Proceedings of 12th IEEE ACM International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications, IEEE, New York, USA.

Roberts, D J & Turner S., A 2007, Proceedings of 11th IEEE ACM International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications, IEEE, New York, USA.

Roberts, D J & Turner S., A 2006, Proceedings of 10th IEEE ACM International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications, IEEE, New York, USA.

Turner, S & Roberts, D J & Theodoropoulos, G 2005, Proceedings of 9th IEEE ACM SIGSIM Int. Symp. on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications.

Turner, S & Roberts, D J & Wilson, L 2004, Proceedings of 8th IEEE ACM SIGSIM Int. Symp. on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications.